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Human vs.________ # of differences in the amino acid sequen

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Jean Tizoe

on 11 June 2014

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Transcript of Human vs.________ # of differences in the amino acid sequen

3. How are self-replicating molecules, such as RNA molecules in the “RNA World” hypothesis, essential to the most popular hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth?
Human vs._____
Rhesus Monkey
Horse
Donkey
Common Zebra
Pig, Cow, Sheep
Dog
Gray Whale
Rabbit
Kangaroo
Chicken, Turkey
Penguin
Pekin Duck
Snapping turtle
Rattlesnake
Tuna
Bulldog
Screwfly fly
Silkworm Moth
Tomato horn worm
Wheat
Rice
Baker's Yeast
Candida Yeast
Neurospora
0
3
3
# of differences in amino acid sequence
3
3
3
3
3
3
5
6
2
3
4
4
6
9
13
13
18
18
17
19
19
Earth's Early Atmosphere

Jean Standley
When scientists say that living organisms share a universal genetic code they really mean that every organisms have similar amino acids in their genetic sequence, up to a certain point. Even though there are changes in their codes, they are similar to a extent.
1. What does it mean when scientists say that living organisms share a universal genetic code?
2. How does a universal genetic code relate to the hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth?
A universal genetic code relates to the hypothesis of the origin of life on earth because of the fact that even though organisms can be completely different physically, they gotta all come from the same origin to share a similar genetic code.
Self-replicating molecules are essential to the most popular hypothesis about the origin of life because self-replicating molecules explain how one organism could have a similar amino acid code, as another organism, for an example a dog and a horse. Even though they are two completely different animals, they could have a similar genetic code. This wouldn't be possible without self-replicating molecules that were passed down throughout time, from the origin of all life on Earth.
The similarities and differences in genetic codes can be used to determine how closely related different species are by comparing and contrasting the amino acids in their genetic codes and seeing which are the same and which are different.
4. How might similarities and differences in genetic codes, or the proteins built as a result of these codes, be used to determine how closely related different species are?
The closest related species, to the human and chimpanzee is Peking Duck, and the furthest is Candida Yeast and Neurospora. The Pekin Duck's genetic code has only 2 differences to the human and chimpanzee genetic code, while the Candida Yeast and Neurospora have about 19.
5. Based on the amino acid sequence data for the Cytochrome-C protein, chimpanzees and humans share an identical coding sequence. What other species identified on the chart has a coding sequence that is most closely related to the humans and chimpanzees and most distantly related? Explain your answer.
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