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Robespierre and Napoleon

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Tiffany Humphries

on 12 December 2012

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Transcript of Robespierre and Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte Maximilien Robespierre lived: 1769-1821 French Revolution:
Robespierre and Napoleon Robespierre lived: 1758-1794 1781- becomes a lawyer 1789- elected to Estates General of Artois 1791- offered that no one currently in the EG should be in the next; appointed public accuser extreme left wing(basically liberal)
National Assembly drew up a constitution, Robespierre turned to the people of Paris
gave many speeches to assembly-had many ideas for the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Constitutional Provisions (with a lot of success)
King Louis XVI had to be executed(previously opposed death penalty); Robespierre thought that if one man’s life had to be sacrificed to save the Revolution, it had to be done
member of Jacobin group
during Reign of Terror Robespierre slowly gained more and more power-also lost more and more popularity 1792- resigns from postion of public accuser; elected first deputy for Paris for the new National Convention; abolition of monarchy January 21, 1793- King Louis XVI is executed June 1793- Jacobins take control, Reign of Terror begins; Committee of Public Safety becomes new government and rules July 28, 1794- executed 1794-anti-Robespierre coalition got enough votes to condemn him and he is arrested Reign of Terror- Robespierre liked the guillotine..a lot; anyone thought to be connected to any rebellion or such in any way was KILLED (16,000 were killed within 9 months of the Reign of Terror)
dechristianization-took out the word "saint" from street names etc.; churches were closed(by armies); priests encouraged to marry; new republican calendar-years wouldn't be numbered from birth of Jesus, but September 22, 1792(day France Republic was proclaimed, religious celebrations were replaced by revolutionary festivals and such;
French people, when they started realizing that Robespierre was corrupt, sought to overthrow him and his government
anti-Robespierre coalition got him arrested; he is sent to the guillotine without trial Effects! stop use of his calendar
Jacobin club shut down
churches allowed to reopen for services
February 21, 1895- freedom of all religions and such to worship freely
August 1795- new constitution written- desired more stability
this constitution established nat'l leglislative assembly with 2 chambers
1797 elections- because of the economic problems and problems from the Committee of Public Safety; Directory(executive power that took power in 1795) relied on military for power- this all lead to a coup d'etat(strike against the state) in which general Napoleon Bonaparte(very successful and popular at this time) took power 1779-enters military academy at Brienne 1784-moved to Parisian Ecole Royale Militaire 1785-graduates as second lieutenant in the artillery; completes a 3-year course in 1 year 1792-becomes a captain 1794-because of how good he was with the artillery at Capture of Toulon, he is promoted to brigadier general
(he was only 25 at this point) 1795-saved National Convention from Parisian mob; promoted to major general at this point, Napoleon is becoming very popular within some social circles 1796-becomes commander of French army in Italy; turns the weak army into a very well-trained army 1797-with a series of stunning victories, Napoleon defeats Austria and dictates peace; he returns to France a
hero and was given command of an army training to invade England; he believed the French weren't
ready for such an invasion and proposed that they hurt Britain indirectly by taking Egypt and
threatening India (major source of British wealth) 1799-because the British control the seas, they cut off supplies to Napoleon's army in Egypt and Napoleon
abandons them; Napoleon returns to Paris and participates in a coup d'etat which led to his
dictatorship later on of France at this time, a new form of republic is proclaimed with a constitution that established bicameral legislative assembly elected indirectly to reduce the role of elections
executive power: 3 consuls (first consul had the most power and his rule overpowered the others
as the first consul, Napoleon controlled the entire executive authority of government, had a huge influence over legislature, appointed members of the bureaucracy, controlled arms, and conducted foreign affairs 1802-declared consul for life; consul presented a balanced budget 1804-returns France to a monarchy and crowns himself emperor 1801-makes peace with the Catholic Church as his reign continued, Napoleon became even more dictatorial
claimed he preserved the gains of the revolution; idea of republican liberty was completely demolished by his (well disguised) autocracy
NEW CODE OF LAWS-creates 7; most important is Civil Code (Code Napoleon)- recognized principle of equality of all citizens before the law, right of individuals to choose their professions, religious toleration, abolition of serfdom and feudalism, and protection of property rights
Civil Code really reflected revolutionary want for a uniform legal system, legal equality, and protection of property and individuals
during his reign, Napoleon undid some of the legal decisions of the French Revolution; some of these include: easier divorce, restricted rights of fathers over children, and allowing of children to equally inherit property; Napoleon basically nullified all of these
BUREAUROCRACY-bureaucratic structure of France-powerful centralized administration; the National Assembly, during the revolution, divided France into 83 departments and replaced provincial estates, nobles and intendants with self-governing assemblies Napoleon kept the 83 departments but eliminated those assemblies; instead, he put new officials; the most important of these were prefects-central government's agents appointed by Napoleon himself
TAX COLLECTION-now systematic and efficient (first time the tax collecting had ever been this way in France) no exceptions were given even for birth, status, or special arrangement
creates new aristocracy based on merit in state service
shut down 60 of France's 73 newspapers and forced that the government read and edit all manuscripts before reaching the public; even mail was opened by government police
when he became consul in 1799, France was at war with second coalition of Russia, Great Britain, and Austria; Napoleon realized that France needed a break from war just after the French Revolution
1802-peace achieved at Amiens in March; didn't last long-British and French thought of it as
temporary and didn't plan to follow it anyway 1803-was with Britain begins again; British is joined by Austria and Russia in the third coalition 1805-Battle of Ulm-Napoleon crushed Austrian army; attacks Austrian and Russian forces after
going east to Austerlitz; Austria sued for peace and Russia led their remaining troops back to
Russia 1806-crushed Prussian forces before they could have a chance to actually become strong 1807-defeats Russian forces (they decided to pop back into the fight); Napoleon's Grand Army defeated continental members of the coalition, giving him the opportunity to create a European order Napoleon Napoleon's Grand Empire French Empire: enlarged France extending to the Rhine in the east and including the west part of Italy north of Rome Dependent States: Spain, Netherlands, Kingdom of Italy, Swiss Republic, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and the Confederation of Rhine (union of all German states minus Austria and Prussia Allied States: Prussia, Austria and Russia Major Causes of the collapse of Napoleon's Empire 1)the survival of Great Britain which was really because of Britain's seapower
2)force of nationalism

nationalism included the people's emphasis on brotherhood and soliditarity against other peoples; also, this involved the cultural identity of people based on common language, religion, and national symbols

Napoleon's spread of revolutionary principles brought the spread of nationalism; the French aroused nationalism by making themselves hated oppressors and bringing out the patriotism in people to oppose the french nationalism therefore showing the people of Europe what nationalism was and what a nation in arms was capable of Fall of Napoleon In 1812, Napoleon invades Russia; his only hope for victory is to meet Russian troops directly and defeat them quickly but Russian forces retreated back hundreds of miles while torching their own villages so that the French troops can't get food or supplies Russians stop at Borodino and Napoleon's army was victorious; when the remaining troops arrive at Moscow, it's on fire and they still couldn't get supplies and food; Napoleon abandons Moscow and begins the "Great Retreat" across Russia in the HARSH WINTER; only 40,000 of his original 600,000 troops returned to Poland in January of 1813; this military disaster let to a war of liberation all over Europe ending in Napoleon's defeat in April 1814 After defeat, Napoleon gets to "play" ruler on the island of Elba while the Bourbon monarchy was restored in france with Louis XVIII but he had little support; Napoleon sneaks back into france and troops are sent to capture him; he says to them "I am your emperor, if there is a man among you that would kill his emperor...here I am!"
They joined his side and Napoleon enters France in March 20, 1815 Fall of Napoleon (Continued) The powers that had defeated Napoleon in the first place pledged to fight him; because Napoleon wants to strike first, he raises an army and went to attack the nearest soldiers in Belgium; at Waterloo on June 18, Napoleon meets combined British and Prussian army under Duke of Wellington and suffered a bloody defeat. This time, Napoleon's enemies exile him to Saint Helena (an island in the South Atlantic that is small and forsaken)
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