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communication skills

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by

Lydia Yousry

on 11 August 2016

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Transcript of communication skills

FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION
Identify Basic Communication Techniques
How Communication Works
Basic Model of Communication

Encode - to translate thoughts or ideas into a language that is understood by others
Message - output of encoding
Medium - method used to convey the message
Noise - anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of the message
Decode - translate the message back into meaningful thoughts or ideas


Conclusion
Course Outline
Understanding Business Communication
Using Verbal and Non-verbal Communication
Communicating with Graphics
Communicating in Writing
Communicating Electronically

Perception
Language
Perceptual Filter
What is a Perceptual Filter?

The conduit through which an individual screens and interprets a message based on his or her beliefs and values.
Gender and culture are perceptual filters.

Communication Barriers

ABCs of Effective Communication
Communication Styles
Synchronous

Communication that occurs or exists at the same time.

Face-to-face
Talking on the telephone
Listening to the radio

Asynchronous

Communication that does not occur or exist at the same time or have the same time period or phase.

Voice mail and email
Written

Communication Methods
Face-to-face communication
Written communication
Telephone communication
Voice mail communication
Email communication
listening skills
Formal and Informal Communication
formal communication
Communication sanctioned by an organization that occurs through official channels.
It is typically official, impersonal, and in most cases, written.

It is official.
It is binding.
It is precise.
It is traceable.
It is cost effective.

Advantages of Formal Communication:
Informal Communication
Communication that occurs outside official channels.
It is more personal than formal communication.
It is generally verbal rather than written.

Advantages of Informal Communication:
Encourages participation.
Fosters an atmosphere of openness and honesty.
Develop respect for each other’s perspectives.

Create Graphics for Business Communication
Know Your Audience
Use references your audience will understand.
Avoid using jargon or specific symbols unless everyone understands them.
Define terms or images that may be new.

Basics of Graphic Communication
Know your audience.
Keep it simple.
Keep it clear.
Keep it readable.
Keep it consistent.
Balance imagery and text
Outlines
Create graphics for business communication.
Communicate static information using graphics
Communicate dynamic information using graphics
“A picture is worth a thousand words,”
Keep it Simple
One topic per graphic.
A series of related points per graphic.
One concept per graphic.
Avoid putting too many items on one graphic.
Use labels or title to clarify items in your graphic.

Cluttered Graphic
What’s wrong with this Graphic?

Bar Chart Examples
Keep it Readable
Keep it Clear
Limit your use of color
Limit the number of style
Use bold or italic for emphasis.
Consider using black and white graphics for documents that are printed without color.
Keep the page free of clutter so the audience can focus on your graphic message.
Communicate Static Information
Static information presents facts and figures.
Pie charts and bar graphs.
Basic elements of design:
Include one topic or point per graphic.
Create graphics that are clear and easy to understand.
Do not clutter graphics with unnecessary items.
Limit your use of color and type for clarity and readability.
Label items as needed for clarity and emphasis.

Task
Examine the following two graphics. Determine which one is better for a presentation and explain why.

What would be the best use of the other graphic?
Task
The head of your small company thinks people are writing too many personal notes at work and you have been given the task of determining if company email is being abused by employees.
You ask the IT department to give you records of company computer use for the last month and begin sorting out business versus personal email correspondence.
In a one month period, there was an average of 3,000 emails sent per week. A table, like the one in Figure 3-7, would help you sort the totals for one week’s worth of emails.
1.Gathering Facts
2.Analyzing Facts
3.Creating a Graphic
Communicate Dynamic Information
Dynamic information illustrates a process, procedure, or cause and effect relationship.
Flowcharts:
A graphic that illustrates how something moves through a series of steps, stages, or phases.
Fishbone diagrams:
A graphic that illustrates causes that contribute to a problem.
Flowcharts
flowchart Example
Fishbone Diagram
Backward Fishbone Diagram
Expanded Fishbone Diagram
by/ lydia Yousry
Verbal and Non-verbal Communication
What is Verbal Communication?

Elements of Verbal Communication:

Voice quality (a speaker’s tone of voice).
Style (vocal pitch, speed, and volume).
Word choice.
Adaptation.

What is Non-verbal Communication?

Categories of Non-verbal Communication:

Stationary:
Orientation, proximity, posture, and physical contact.
Active:
Facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact.
Read Body Language
why?!!
Personal space
Different Cultures ...
What is your private space?

What happen When you invade my space?!
Reactions to an invasion of your space
Feel troubled
Get defensive
Become aggressive
Retaliate
3 Facts you should know about body language
Our body language always communicates.
Body language can never be judged based on one single signal.
Body language reveals the discrepancies between what a person says and what a person truly believes.

Cheat Sheet to Hidden Thoughts
“YES” Gestures

Open palms
Forward lean
Smile
Enhanced eye contact
Head nodding

“NO” Gestures

Folded arms
Tapping
Feet pointed in different directions
Hands on the knees
Hand over the mouth
Constant eye movement
Shaking head
“MAYBE” Gestures

Taking a sip of a drink
Biting the frame of eyeglasses
Cleaning eyeglasses
Scratching head
Chin stroking

What to Watch out !
Signs You’ve Overstepped your Bounds
A threatening stare, then a turn to avoid your gaze.
Increased blinking.
Leaning away.
Decreased smiling.
Stiffening or sitting up straight.
Turning feet and torso away from you
Crossed arms.
Finger or toe tapping
Piling things up between you.
Refusal to share anymore personal details.
Verbal hostility.
Who have eyes doesn't have to say a word ....
Any Question ?!!
THank You!
There are three main elements to written communication
structure
(the way the content is laid out)
style
(the way it is written)
content
(what you are writing about)
Structuring
Clarify the
purpose
of your communication before you start writing. In business communications, clarity is more important than style.
Identify the

key points
,
facts

and Decide on a
logical order
for what you have to say
Compose a
strong introduction
and
ending
. The first will make an immediate and positive impression on the reader; the second will remain in their mind after they have finished reading
Use
short paragraphs
and
sentences
rather than long ones. Keep to
one idea per paragraph
and put your
point in the first line
, then add the supporting information.
Help
key points
to stand out by the use of
headings, sub-headings
and
bullet points
. This will allow your reader to quickly scan your message for the main points.
Writing in a style appropriate to the audience
All good communicators should think about their readers:
How much
information and detail
will they need?
Should you use
specialist terms
or should you “translate” these to make yourself understood by a generalist reader?
How
formal or informal
should your writing be?
The writing rules of George Orwell
Never use a long word where a short one will do.
If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
Never use the passive voice (e.g. "Bones are liked by dogs") where you can use the active voice ("Dogs like bones").
Never use jargon if you can think of an everyday equivalent.
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