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Transcript of 4.4.1
Halfway Through the Race
1. Her body temperature starts to increase because heat from the muscles then moves to the blood which circulates throughout your body, making your temperature rise. Lactic acid is one of the waste byproducts resulting from the chemical reactions that result in muscle contractions.
2. Sweat is your body's way of cooling itself. Sweating is a process designed to help cool your body if you get too hot. What happens is that the sweat ores in the skin exude sweat which than evaporates. The process of evaporation causes cooling.
3. The hypothalamus the brain helps stimulate the sweat glands in the skin.
4. The body becomes dehydrated; once you know you are dehydrated you need to drink water. Mary alleviated this condition by drinking a lot of water before the race.
5. She is feeling comfortable at the middle of the race because her body has already gone through the beginning of the race when her body first started working hard. She is now drawing her energy from the aerobic in nature. This short-term energy system "kicks" into place after the available CP stores are exhausted. The body's cells begin to break down a stored substance called glucose, using glucose and glycogen to produce more ATP. This process is known as glycolysis.
The Start Of The Race!
1 Minute Into the Race
1. We have talked about the central and peripheral nervous systems. We know that the peripheral nervous system relays signals to and from the spinal cord. But this system is divided yet again. What are the two main divisions of the peripheral nervous system? How do these systems relate to the three types of muscle?
the somatic division and the autonomic dividion. Emotion involves the entire nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system regulates things like pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and arousal in response to emotional circumstances
2. Why is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system active just before the race?
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems. Its general action is to mobilize the body's resources under stress; to induce the fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basal level to maintain homeostasis.
3. How does the nervous system influence other body systems at the start of the race?
The nervous system takes in sensory information, sends it to the brain, where it is processed. From there, the brain determines what action the body should from moving the body to signaling the release of hormones.
4. What is happening to the digestive and urinary systems at the start of the race? Why?
Running uses the largest muscles of body. This creates excessive flow of blood into muscles of the lower body. Increased blood flow to the legs will be in demand & blood flow to the digestive system is reduced, resulting in loss of blood supply to the lower body. This decreases the nutrient & oxygen flow to the intestines & other secondary digestive organs - less efficient
5. What is happening to Mary’s blood glucose levels right before the race? Relate this change to energy and ATP.
Depending on what she ate before the race would help know what her blood glucose levels are doing. if Mary is just stretching at her own rate and pace / staying calm and pumped up her blood glucose levels will normally sty the same. If Mary is stretching like crazy before the race her blood glucose levels will rise.
6. Why does her mouth feel dry?
Dry mouth means you don't have enough saliva, or spit, to keep your mouth moist. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while, especially if you're nervous, upset or under stress.
Running at a sprint puts new demands of Mary's body. Including;
an increased heart rate/cardiac output because the heart needs to pump more oxygen to the body.
the stomach shuts down so that it can save energy for the muscles
lungs work harder to get more oxygen to heart.
4. List and describe at least three things a runner can do before a race to prepare the body for the demands it is about to endure.
1. Stay Hydrated
Dehydration during a race is one of a runner's biggest fears because invariably it will lead to increased symptoms of exhaustion as muscles fail to get the moisture they need to function effectively. You need to take on board enough water to keep hydrated, without drinking too much which will leave you feeling sluggish and heavy as it slops around in your stomach whilst you run.
If you are running a marathon make sure you check out where the water stations are sited on your route plan before you set off and always use the water provided. You need to take on board pint of water every 30-40 minutes to maintain your hydration levels and boost performance.
Tip: Ideally you'll need to consume about 1-2 litres before the race, but don't drink it all just before you run! Instead stagger when you drink it, consume about 1 litre at breakfast and a further litre before you reach the race venue. Don't drink or eat anything 40 minutes before the race to allow your digestive system to settle.
2. Warm up/Stretches
Gentle stretches help to prepare your body for the rigours ahead and lengthen muscles and tendons that may have become tight in the anxiety that builds just before a race. Invariably this may help to ensure that you get the maximum use out of them when you start running as they will be ready to respond. It will also help to reduce the prospects of injury.
40 minutes before the race you should begin your warm up program. Spend time going through a range of stretches focussing upon a number of muscles that you will primarily use when running. These include:
*Shoulders and Neck
10 minutes before the race, stop stretching but in order to keep your muscles warm and nimble go for a gentle jog, to get your body prepared.
3. Positive Mental Attitude
Use your 40 minute warm up to focus your mind and think about the goals you have set for the race. You might want to win it, to beat a personal best time or just finish the race, but getting your attitude right is key. Clear away thoughts of failure from you mind and visualise achieving your goal.
4. Eat a high carbohydrate breakfast.
Some runners are so nervous the day they race that they skip breakfast because they can't face it. Breakfast is essential and a high carbohydrate one even more so because you need to maintain your blood sugar levels and whilst not eating may seem a good idea at the time, you will most certainly take an energy dip during the race which will effect your overall performance.
When oxygen is limited, the body temporarily converts pyruvate into a substance called lactate, which allows glucose breakdown--and thus energy production--to continue. This lactic acid causes a burning sensation in the muscles.
3. Our body sweats to stay cool during exercise. How does this seem to counteract the action of the urinary system?
The skin rids waste from the body through sweat glands. However, the major task of excretion falls on the urinary system. If the urinary system fails, the other organs cannot sufficiently maintain body fluids within their normal limits.
She's been running fast and her hearts been pumping fast and the blood vessels are dilated but her heart rate suddenly lowered but the blood vessels are still dilated causing her to feel dizzy.
2. Explain how the respiratory and the cardiovascular system work together to meet the demands of the working muscle.
The respiratory system works to oxygenate the pumped blood from the heart. The circulatory system pumps the oxygenated blood to the whole body organs. The muscle cells, like any other cell in the body, will take its nutrients and oxygen needed for its metabolism and will wash off its waste products into the blood
Why is Mary dizzy at the end of the race?
She only sipped water because she lost water but she can't guzzle it down because she could get too much water causing her sodium levels to be too low. She could die if she drank too much water.
Why did Mary only sip water? What could happen if she drinks too much water?
When you exercise, your blood needs more oxygen therefore making you breathe harder
an increased respiratory rate allows for more blood flow which distributes other nessicary component in the blood as well like glucose.
Mary's heart rate and breathing are still high after she stopped running because it still needs to ctch up will the body' need to get more oxygen.
6. Which muscle energy system(s) is (are) used for each of the following activities? Make sure to explain your reasoning.
o The 50 meter dash
o A game of basketball
Glycogen-lactic acid and aerobic systems
o A single football play
o Weight lifting
Phosphagen and glycogen-lactic acid systems
o Running a marathon
Phosphagen and glycogen-lactic acid systems
Glycogen-lactic acid system, mainly
Glycogen-lactic acid and aerobic systems
Why is Mary's heart rate adn breathing still so high after she stops running?
At The Finish!
During exercise, the initial increase in cardiac output is due to an increase in both heart rate and stroke volume. When Mary's level of exercise reaches 40% to 60% capacity, stroke volume reaches a maximum. Further increases in cardiac output are largely the result of increases in heart rate.
Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems Duration of Maximal Muscle Activity Activity Types
Phosphagen System 10-15 seconds Power surges
Glycogen - Lactic acid System 30-40 seconds more Intermediate athletic activities
Aerobic System Unlimited time (as long as nutrients last) Prolonged athletic activities
10 Minutes After The Race!
The nervouse system send signals to the heart to pump harder and the lungs to do so also. This together increases the blood flow in the body.
She kept running after she had used up all her instant supply of energy making her start to burn more stored energy, causing her to lose weight so quickly.
How could Mary have lost four pounds in such a short amount of time?
She's going to refuel he rbody and her endocrine system will release hormones to level out the water balance.
What are Mary's actions and endocrine system going to bring her body back into balance?
They haven't yet recovered from the hard workout and she just worked them very hard. She's stil resupplying them with their necessities.
Why are Mary's muscles still sore?
What division of the autonomic nervous system is at work now? How does this division impact Mary’s other body systems?
1. Provide at least two examples of the opposite effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the nervous system.
When running the sympathetic nervous sytem increases your digestion.
Parasympathetic decreses your digestion.
5. When you set out to jog five miles, your body first uses the ATP that is floating around in your system. Describe the systems that your body relies on for ATP after this point.
The musclular system is in need of ATP.
The repiratory system relies on ATP so the lungs can keep working.
The cardiac sytem uses ATP in order to pump blood.
The parasympathetic nervoussystem. It affects the other bpdy systems such as the digestive ystem. It increases saliva production for instance. It's responsible for the rest and digest phase of the body.