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Institutionalized Racism, Implicit Bias & High Suspension/ E

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Sheri Broussard

on 23 August 2014

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Transcript of Institutionalized Racism, Implicit Bias & High Suspension/ E

Institutionalized Racism, Implicit Bias & High Suspension/ Expulsion Rates of High School Aged African American Males
Sheri's Perspective
"Racism is ignorant. And it's stupid. And it's old. And it's played out. So beat it already with that, you know what I mean? 'Let's all get along' - I'm so tired of that damn sentence, but it's true."

-Queen Latifah

Sheri Broussard
Jeffrey Davis
Marion Turner-Riley

Jeff's Perspective
"I'm a black American, I am proud of my race. I am proud of who I am. I have a lot of pride and dignity."

-Michael Jackson
Marion's Perspective
“When you control a man's thinking you do not have to worry about his actions. You do not have to tell him not to stand here or go yonder. He will find his 'proper place' and will stay in it. You do not need to send him to the back door. He will go without being told. In fact, if there is no back door, he will cut one for his special benefit. His education makes it necessary.”

-Carter G. Woodson,
The Mis-Education Of The Negro
Who is right?
All of us
Organizations & Activities
The American Promise
School To Prison Pipeline

Zero Tolerance
Cited as the primary factor limiting disciplinary options of educational admin. Staff (Green, 2004; Bazemore and Schiff, 2010).
Perception that AA males require greater control and will only respond to punitive acts of discipline, rather than non-punitive actions.
Power and social resources attached to class, and racial status (Bowditch, 1993).
Zero Tolerance
The teacher's ability to control the class.
Parents have few resources to politically challenge a disciplinarians action of school.
Getting rid of “troublemakers” via suspensions as disciplinary transfers.

Negative Effects
Punishments put students at greater
risk for decreased connectivity in
school, increased participation in risky or illegal activity, poor academic
achievement and dropout,
(Boccanfuso and Kuhlfield, 2011
Cassalla, 2003).
Negative Effects
Contributes to lost instructional time, limit understanding between families and schools, demonstrates poor use of school resources and lower academic achievement, (Morrison & D'Incau; Raffaele Mendez, Koff, & ferron, 2002, Skiba).
Negative Effects
Students are likely to be held back a grade, not graduate, and become involved in the criminal justice system, (Fabelo, T, Thompson, M.D., Plotkin, M. Charmichael, D., Marchbanks lll, M.P., Booth, E.A., 2011).
A marked lack of dignity for the offending youth, (Schiff, M, 2013).

What are disciplinarian’s responsibilities?
Balancing school's interest and Public image, student's behavior, staff authority within the context of complaints.
Schools not responsible for perpetuating equity, but they can make a difference, (Bennett and Harris, 1982).
Are school districts taking measures to ensure impartiality in due process matters?
Research indicates that role models may affect levels of aspirations and eventual career attainment,(Grotyevant and Cooper, 1981).

Are school districts taking measures to ensure impartiality in due process matters? (cont...)
Until youngsters are no longer categorized, consciously or unconsciously, according to their racial/ethnic and gender identities, equity in the schools may be unobtainable.
Numerous social scientist have identified compelling connections between schooling experiences and negative outcomes such as delinquency, (Noguera, 2003, Voelkl, Welte, and Wieczorek, 1999).
Low income community and anti-social behavior heightens likelihood of entering juvenile and criminal justice systems, (Simon and Burns, 1997).

“Hell, if they are going to treat me like a criminal, then I am going to act like one.”

- 15-year-old Black male returning to school after serving two months in a juvenile detention center, (Livingston & Nahimana, 2006).
Micro- aggressions
Industry outsourced, high unemployment, lack of opportunity for education...How will I survive?
Macro Effects
African American young men who internalize overt and implied racism are at higher risk of developing anxiety and depression...
(Livingston & Nahimana, 2006).
How do I cope?
Alameda County Behavioral Health Care Services. (2011). African American Utilization Report. Retrieved from:



Day-Vines, N. L., Day-Hairston, B .O. (2005). Culturally congruent strategies for addressing the Behavioral needs

of urban, African American male adolescents. Professional School Counseling. 8 (3). Located at:


Davis, K. Bent-Goodley, T. (2004) The color of social policy. Council on social work education. Alexandria, VA.

DeGruy, J (2005) Post traumatic slave syndrome: America's legacy of enduring injury and healing. Joy DeGruy

Publications Inc. Portland, OR.

Fenning, P. Rose, J. (2007). Over representation of African American students in Exclusionary discipline the role

of school policy. Sage Publications vol 42 issue 6 page 536. Located at: uex.sage pub.Com/ content/ 42/6/536

Kunjufu, J. (2004). Solutions for black America. African American images. 1st ed Chicago.

Kunjufu, J. The conspiracy to destroy black boys. (video)

Oakland Unified School District. (2011). African American Male Achievement Task Force Summary Report

2011-2016. Retrieved from: http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/229066/ousd-aamasumreport.pdf

Randall, V. R. (2008) What is institutional racism? Dyingwhileblack.org. University of dayton school of law.

Located at: http://academic.udayton.edu/race/ 2008election andracism /raceandracism/


Vincent, C G. (2010). Strategies for preventing disproportionate Exclusions of African American

students. University of Oregon, Eugene, OR. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 55. 4.201.

Woods, D.V., King, N. J., Hanna, S.M. and Murray, C. (2012). We ain’t crazy, Just coping with a crazy system.

Pathways into the black population for eliminating mental health disparities. Retrieved from: http://

www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/Documents/African_Am_CRDP_Pop_Rept_FINAL20 12.pdf

Downward Spiral
The number African American 4-year-old males is used to determine the number of people who will that will be imprisoned in 15 to 20 years.
600,000 (six hundred thousand) 4 year old African American males in the United States Prisons are being planned to house 28,134 of them by 2009.
African American Males -10% of All youth.
African American Males Youth make up - 60% of Incarcerated Youth.
African American Males are incarcerated at a rate of 48.5/ thousand (Compared to White Males 8.5/ thousand)

School to Prison Pipeline: “From Pre-k to Prison”
Downward Spiral
Grade retention
Discipline Referrals
Enter kindergarten behind:
Language deficit
Literacy deficit
Minor behavior problems
African American Boys Experience increased:
Emotional Problems
Learning Disabilities
Zero tolerance policies and procedures have been in effect for 30 years and it will take at least 30 if not more years to undo the damage.
California is the nation's leader in reducing the school to prison pipeline.
What's the plan for teaching "cultural humility" to teachers, employers, law enforcement and healthcare providers?
Does it work?
How does implicit bias factor in?

Downward Spiral
PTSD Symptoms in very young children:
“A number of children who have aggressive behavior are children who have experienced various types of traumatic experiences.”
They repeatedly and involuntarily re-experience the trauma by remembering it
They experience an emotional dampening down of their responsiveness
They’re irritable
They have difficulty concentrating
Their sleep is interrupted
African American boys - 30% in Special Education
Less than 60% of African American Boys Graduate High School

The Ism:
Defined - The bias behavior based on bias in perception, judgement, attitude, beliefs and stereotypes (For Example: Fear of “Blacks”)

Implicit bias can influence a number of professional judgments and actions of Police officers, Educators, Doctors, Lawyers, Judges and Jurors or Voters and Human Resource Managers.

Implicit Bias
The Ism:
Police officers face high-pressure, high-risk decisions in the line of fire. One seminal research report reveals that these rapid decisions are not immune to the effects of implicit biases.

Flawed Approach found in asking people to report their attitudes.
1) Not wish or not able to accurately report
So people report what it should be:
Unwilling to provide socially undesirable responses
2) People may not even be consciously aware that they hold
biased attitudes. Believed to be developed through
personal experience based on common knowledge shared
about stereotypes.
Found to react to images of unfamiliar Black faces with stronger amygdula activation
Stereotypic Explanatory Bias (SEB) is the tendency to ascribe the stereotype-consistent behavior of minorities to factors intrinsic to the individual.
Implicit Bias
"...To handicap a student by teaching him that his black face is a curse and that his struggle to change his condition is hopeless is the worst sort of lynching. It kills one's aspirations and dooms him to vagabondage and crime."

- Carter G. Woodson

Social Workers
Protect our clients from the ism's
Ourselves & Clients
Legal rights & Due Process
What is Institutionalized Racism?

Institutional Racism involves institutions functioning in ways that exclude individuals or groups from receiving services based on their race or culture.
Differences in response to individuals or groups because of race.
Institutional racism tends to involve
Policies of Institutions
Practices of Institutions
Procedures of Institutions That have a disproportionately negative effect on an individual or groups access to:
Institutional Racism

Racism - An intentional or unintentional action that subordinates an individual or group on the basis of race.
The ability to give or withhold
a) Social benefits
b) facilities
c) services
d) opportunities

The Widening Gap between African American Male Youth & White Male Youth Academic Achievement
Timeline of State Government Discrimination
Based on Race


We Must Save African American Males. Jawanza Kunjufu

U.S. capitalistic & patriarchal country
In America it is difficult to be a man without income
In a capitalistic country, if you lack capital you are considered worthless
A man is evaluated based on his level of productivity
Does America need Black males to continue the fastest growing industry, prisons.

States the issues involve:

Education Solutions:
A forth grade intervention team.
Mandatory in-service training for teacher on Black male learning styles.
Black male teachers
Right brain classrooms
Black male classrooms
Black male schools
Rights of passage programs
Source: State of Emergency We must save African American Males
African Proverb:
“Old Men are for counsel….”

Man 2 Man
Young Adult Men’s Mentoring Ministry
Mentor Men
Males between the ages of 18 & 30.
Proverbs 27:17
“Iron sharpeneth iron: so a man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend.”
Share interpersonal problems & issues.
Teach & provide Life skills that will help & enhance their personal development by applying practical biblical principles.
They are not the only ones dealing with these life challenges.

Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome
America’s Legacy of Enduring Injury & Healing
Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome
America’s Legacy of Enduring Injury & Healing
Be The Healing:
Know Our Selves
Healing from Past Injuries
Building Self-Esteem
Taking Control of our Inner World
Racial Socialization
Telling the truth about the world (Handling Racism)
Modeling (Watch someone and learn a skill)
Telling our story (Learning our history, strengthens us & helps us build resilience)

Status of Boys and Men of Color in California

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