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Chapter 6 - The Nervous System

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by

Greg Evans

on 4 December 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 6 - The Nervous System

6.1 - How the
Nervous System Works
What types of things could you do if your nervous system didn't work?
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
Your senses and brain work together so you can respond to your environment.
6.4 - Alcohol and Other Drugs
A
drug
is any chemical taken into the body that causes changes in a person's body or behavior.
6.2 - Divisions of the Nervous System
Image by Tom Mooring
6.3 - The Senses
Chapter 6 - The Nervous System
Functions of the Nervous System
Receives information
- takes in information from outside and inside your body
Responds to information
- your body responds to any stimulus
Helps maintain homeostasis
- directs the body to respond appropriately to information it receives
Illusions
Illusions
The Neuron
Neurons or nerve cells are responsible for carrying a nerve impulse.
3 Types of Neurons:
Sensory - picks up stimuli and converts it into a nerve impulse
Interneuron - carries a nerve impulse from one neuron to the next
Motor - sends impulse to a muscle or gland for a response
How a Nerve Impulse Travels
Nerve impulses can travel as fast as 120 meters per second!
The synapse is the place where two neurons meets and transfer impulses.
A nerve impulse can "jump" the gap (synapse) between two neurons by the release of chemicals from the axon tip.
Central Nervous System
It includes the brain and spinal cord, so it is the control center of your body.
Brain
- controls most functions of the body
Spinal Cord
- thick column of nerves that links the brain to the peripheral nervous system
The Brain and Spinal Cord
Your brain has about 100 billion neurons (interneurons).
3 main areas:
cerebrum
- largest part, interprets senses, controls movement, carries out learning and remembering
cerebellum
- coordinates muscle action and helps keep balance
brain stem
- control's involuntary actions
Peripheral Nervous System
43 pairs of nerves in the peripheral nervous system
sends signals to and from the CNS
Two groups of nerves:
somatic - controls voluntary actions
autonomic - controls involuntary actions
Reflexes
a response that happens automatically and can help you protect yourself
As this is happening a signal is sent to your brain to tell you what is happening.
Nervous System Injuries
Concussions - a bruise like injury to the brain, happens when the brain collides when the skull
Spinal Cord Injuries - occurs when the spinal cord is cut or crushed, usually results in paralysis
Vision
Your eyes respond to the stimulus of light and your brain interprets that stimulus so that you can see.
Hearing and Balance
Smell and Taste
Touch
Your ears respond to sounds that your brain interprets.
Smell and taste work together to interpret chemicals in the air or food.
Your skin has many different receptors that respond to many different stimuli.
What are some possible types of drugs?
Drug Abuse
The intentional misuse of drugs for purposes other than medical ones is known as
drug abuse
.
How might a prescription drug be abused?
Effect - most immediately affect the brain and nervous system, they can also lead to addictions

Tolerance
- a state in which a user needs larger amounts of a drug to produce the same effect

Addiction
- physical dependence, may cause headaches, vomiting, aches and cramps

Other Effects - serious legal and social effects, may contract HIV from needle sharing

Kinds of
Drug Abuse
Alcohol
Depressants
- slow down the activity of the CNS, causes muscles to relax and may cause drowsiness
Stimulants
- speed up body processes, the heart beats faster and breathing rate increases
Inhalants and Hallucinogens
- produce mood-altering effects, people see or hear things that do not exist
Steroids
(anabolic steroids) - man made chemicals that are similar to hormones produced by the body, may increase muscle size and alter mood, as well as do heart and liver damage
Alcohol
is a powerful depressant found in many beverages including beer, wine and liquor.
Alcohol abuse can lead to
alcoholism
, a disease in which a person is physically and emotionally dependent on alcohol.
Full transcript