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Elements of Civilization
Transcript of Elements of Civilization
An army is the physical force behind the government, which means it enforces its laws. It also protects a civilization from invaders. S c al Structure Rel g on Religion is made up of beliefs people created to explain natural phenomena, like lightning and floods. Art stic and Intellectual Devel pment Sumer 1-30-12 Wr t ng Civilization a complex culture where people have advanced to the point where they can share common elements, like government and ideas Sumer Social structure is a hierarchy that is usually based on power and/or money. For example, royalty and/or the wealthy are the top rank, and the poor people and/or slaves are the lowest rank.
Sometimes skin color also affects social structure. Writing is a form of communication that allows people to pass down stories and important information to future generations. For example, they could leave behind what berries are edible and which aren't. Switzerland Sumer was divided into city-states, which are independent cities that own the surrounding territory. Some city-states were Eridu, Ur, and Uruk Buildings were made of sun-baked mud bricks Cities were surrounded by walls to protect itself from invaders Sumer was a theocracy, which means that is was ruled by divine authority Sumer The Sumerians were polytheistic, which means they believed in many gods and goddesses Each city was dedicated to one particular god/goddess Temples were built on large stepped pyramids called ziggurats Priests, who claimed to have a connection to the gods/goddesses, had a lot of power Sumer Sumerian city-states had 3 social groups, which were nobles, commoners, and slaves Nobles were royalty, priests, and their family Commoners were the majority of the people and most of them were farmers Slaves belonged to palace and temple officials and were also used by rich landowners to farm Sumer Sumerians used a system of writing called cuneiform, which means "wedge-shaped" Sumerians used symbols instead of letters to write. Writing allowed the Sumerians to keep records and pass down stories and information to future generations Becoming a scribe was key to a successful career in Sumer Artistic and intellectual development is when people have more time for creativity and learning and start creating works of art and inventing things to make life easier. It is also fun, and is a way to express beliefs. Sumer The Epic of Gilgamesh was a poem about the adventures of a king who wanted to become immortal, but failed Sumerians invented the wheel and were the first to use bronze Sumerians also made very beautiful works of art with gold and stone Temples were built on top of huge stepped pyramids called ziggurats. Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland cities usually have a lot of ancient monuments and churches, and are located near lakes and mountains Some cities are Lucerne, Basel, Bern (the capital), Geneva and Zurich Switzerland is also famous for its ski resorts Switzerland's permanent population is small, but it's very crowded during tourist season Switzerland is a republic, and has a two-chamber parliament Its federal government is called "Bundesrat" and is made up of 7 people, each the head of a department in federal administration Every Swiss male is required to serve 260 days in the military Most of the Swiss are Christians, but many also embraced a different interpretation of it In the past, the northern and western part of Switzerland converted to new interpretations of Christianity, while the central areas stayed Catholic The richest 20% of the Swiss own 80% of private property The middle class is large, and going up or down on the social ladder is pretty easy While bragging about wealth is considered impolite, being poor is shameful Social status is determined by wealth in Switzerland The Swiss usually write in German or French, the two most commonly used national languages Swiss authors usually don't reach a national audience Switzerland is famous for their watches, chocolate, and cheese Many ski resorts are considered the best in the world Swiss army knives are used as tools everywhere, with a blade, screwdrivers, scissors, etc. Sumerian kings were believed to be descended from gods Armies were led by the king Sumerian armies consisted mostly of infantry, which are soldiers who fight on foot German and French both use letters like the English alphabet The military relies on bombs and other weapons