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Transcript of Middle Ages
Killed 30-50% of Europe's population
Over 75 million people killed Feudalism Crusades Rise of States & Monarchies Holy Roman Empire Growth of Agriculture & Surpluses More Arable Land
Improved Agricultural Techniques - crop rotation
New Technology - heavy plow, horse collar
New Crops - more vegetables - peas & beans What impact did the plague have on Europe? Abandoned cities
Shortage of laborers
Less competition for resources
Increased position for peasants
Lost faith in the church
Morbid European culture Plague Decentralized
Rural Trade Trade revitalized
Urbanization Feudalism More resources
& higher status for peasants Feudalism 1095-1204 CE 500-1000 CE 1347+ CE France England Crowning of Charlemagne as "Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire"
True beginnings: 962 CE
Pope crowns Otto I emperor
Investiture Controversy (bishops)
Church > State? Carolingian Dynasty destroyed by Vikings (feudal system remains)
Hugh Capet - King of the Franks - 987 CE
Marked the beginnings of modern France
Many Crusaders were Franks Dozens of kingdoms - Angles, Saxons, Germanic groups (Sussex, Essex, etc) that eventually unified
Invaded by the Normans - 1066 - William the Conqueror
System of feudalism 1189 Richard the Lionheart
King of England "The Absent King" 1199 King John
"Lackland" 1216 Tried to take over when Richard was away
Believed he was above the law
Magna Carta - nobles forced John to sign (Law > king, rights - church/state, property, taxes) One Hundred Years War 1337 - 1453 England vs. France
England refused homage to French kings
Joan of Arc Urban Revival: Urban Decline: Lack of centralized gov't
Decline in agricultural productivity End of invasions
Increase in commerce
New technology = agricultural productivity
More laborers Population growth!