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Decolonization Around the World

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Marci Ward

on 8 May 2014

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Transcript of Decolonization Around the World

South Africa
African Independence
Decolonization After World War II
Indian Nationalist Congress (1885): goal is to achieve independence from BR

Mohandas Gandhi:
- used non-violence (civil disobedience)
- refused to help BR in WWII
- led Salt March in 1930 to protest BR salt tax
- fasted in protest
- boycotted BR goods
What is decolonization?
Decolonization: gradual independence of European colonies, decline of European imperialism
- Japan and Nazi Germany = aggressive expansion seen as BAD
- After WWII- Europe is broke and tired
1947: BR agrees to independence
Partition of India
BR divided independent India into 2 countries
- India (Hindu)
- Pakistan (Muslim)

Problems: E and W Pakistan divided --> mass migrations led to riots and murders, fights over Kashmir region
(now called Bangladesh)
After WWII, some Africans want independence
Ghana: 1st African colony to win independence in 1957 (formerly the Gold Coast)
Effects of Decolonization
- Tribal wars (thanks to Berlin Conference)
- Illiteracy
- Disease
- Depleted resources
- Lack of economic skills
- Extreme poverty
- Famine
- Genocides (ex- Rwanda)
Background: Dutch and British fought over diamonds & gold in SA in 1800s, white minority ruled African natives

Apartheid: 1948, policy that ordered
racial separation
Nelson Mandela: protested apartheid using nonviolence, arrested in 1962, released in 1990
1994: all races allowed to participate in election for 1st time, Mandela elected, apartheid ended, new constitution written
Queen of England at the 2012 Olympics...
Poor Britain...
Line to vote in a 2004 election. Why do you think South Africans are so passionate about
heir right to vote 10 years after Mandela's election?
Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the coast in the Salt March of 1930.
As a nonviolent protest of British laws and the salt tax, Indians collected saltwater from the sea to make their own salt.
Gandhi wove his own cloth in the boycott of British textiles, a major source of wealth for the British empire. Why are forms of civil disobedience like this effective?
Divided Pakistan
How much did independence really help the people of the new African nations?
Full transcript