**Effective Lesson Planning and Design**

Introduction

A lesson plan is the teacher's road map of what students need to learn and how learning will take place effectively. Therefore, teachers must design a successful lesson plan that provides appropriate learning activities, provide strategies to obtain feedback on student learning and addresses three key components:

objectives for student learning

teaching/learning activities

strategies to check student understanding

**Three Key Components of a Lesson Plan**

Citation: Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning. ( n.d. ). CRLT . Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.crit.umrich.edu/gsis/p2_5

Lesson Plan Formats

Although there are many lesson plan formats that are available for effective instruction, teachers often use a six-point lesson plan format. Here is an example:

1. Focus and review (establish prior knowledge).

2. Objectives (Statements of Purpose).

3. Teacher Input (present information, tasks and guidance)

4. Guided practice (check for understanding)

5. Independent practice (seat work and homework; retain and transfer)

6. Closure (Evaluate the attainment of knowledge through assessment)

Citation: Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning. ( n.d. ). CRLT . Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.crit.umrich.edu/gsis/p2_5

Objective

What do I want students to learn?

Teaching/Learning Activities

What activities will I use?

Strategies-Check Student

Understanding

How will I check for understanding?

Well-written objectives are critical to planning effective instruction

What is a learning objective?

a statement of what the learner will know, understand, or be able to do as a result of engaging in a learning activity

Learning Objectives:

Number One

Provide clarity about the purpose of the content

Number Two

Provide a framework for organizing the content

Number Three

Guide the development of appropriate content, techniques, and materials by the teacher in order to facilitate/guide learning

Number Four

Help teachers to focus on "need-to-know" content and eliminate unnecessary content

Number 6

Number Five

Inform students of new information or skills they will learn

Students can assume more responsibility for their own learning when they know what they are expected to achieve.

Guide teachers in choosing appropriate methods and materials to enhance students' learning

Assist teachers in designing appropriate assessment and evaluation tools that accurately demonstrate their knowledge of content

Citation: Bloom, B.S. (Ed ) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Susan Fauer Company, Inc 1956.

The Common Core State Standards are designed to provide teachers with a clear, consistent understanding of what students are expected to learn.

Common Core State Standards Initiative

A well-written objective is aligned with the Common Core State Standards Initiative.

Sample

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the text by working together to identify and ask meaningful questions to clarify various points of view (CCSSRL 4.1 refer to details in a text when explaining what the text states explicitly and when drawing inferences)

RL.4.1

refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text

SL.4.1

engage effectively in a range of colllaborative discussions(1-11, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

What makes this a good learning objective???

The objective provides students with the tools to engage in different types of significant learning skills that will aid them in college and career readiness (21st Century Skills). Such as, critical thinking, collaboration, communication, information literacy and innovation

Aligning Objectives with the CCSS

Common Pitfalls in effective lesson planning...how can we avoid them?

These are the five common pitfalls

Unclear Learning Objectives

Remember: Teachers must directly address the content target which helps them to focus on students' outcome

Ex. Students will be able to...

Lesson Assessment Disconnects the Behavior Indicated in the Objective

Remember: The assessment is a description of how teachers will determine if the objective has been accomplished. It must be based on the same behavior that is incorporated in the objective

The Offered Instruction by the Teacher is not efficienct for the level of student learning

Remember: Effective instruction and learning materials must coincide with the age and level of the student learner (check CCSS)

Student activities are ineffective to the lesson objective

Remember: Do not give students "busy work". Whatever activities students perform should contribute directly to their accomplishing the lesson objective

Objective is not stated in terms of the student

Remember: The point of a learning objective is to guide the learning and assessment process

Mistake-Writing the objective in terms of what the teacher is planning to do in the lesson, rather than what the student is to accomplish from the lesson

Backward Design Learning Approach

Backward Design is a learning method of designing educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional activities and assessments. The Backward Design Approach involves three stages

Teacher identifies the desired outcomes by analyzing the standards that should be covered and developing learning outcomes based on the standards

Determine the evidence that proves that the desired outcomes have occurred

Design activities that will promote the desired outcome

Traditional Model vs. Backward Design Model

Citation: Newman, R. (2013). Teaching and learning in the 21st century: Conncecting the dots. San Diago, CA: Bridgepoint Education

Traditional Model

Teachers first identify standards that will be covered or decide on content to be taught.

Main focus: learning activities

Teachers rely on textbooks and teachers' manuals to plan and cover curriculum

No outcomes are planned or identified before instruction begins

At the end of a unit or teaching period, students are assessed, and teacher proceeds to next area of focus. The assessment is the end of learning in that particular area

Teachers primarily focus on inputs (activities and textbooks used in class)

Teachers spend more time thinking about what they need to do to teach the content

Backward Design Model

Teachers start with goals, creates or plans assessments and lastly creates the lesson plan

Teachers do not rely on textbooks and teachers' manuals to plan and cover curriculum

Outcomes are planned or identified prior to instruction

Teachers continue to teach toward the end or learning goals so content that is taught remains focused and organized leaving students with a better understanding of what they learned

Teachers primarily focus on output (desired learning and goals that students achieve)

Teachers focus on what students need to do to accomplish the desired learning goal

**Backwards Design Activity**

Fourth Grade Math Lesson

Stage One: Students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of multiplying and dividing whole numbers. Students will be able to create their own word problems that exemplify adding and subtracting. Students will be able to create equations by using shapes and utilizing math symbols. Students will be able to analyze word problems by using their four basic math operations.

Stage Two: Teachers will observe students as they work on tasks. Assess students' work through question and answer, teacher-student/student-student conversations during engaging activities. Student Interpretations when students are called upon to answer questions, teacher will address any student misunderstandings.

Stage Three: Students will watch videos together (School House Rock). Through teacher-directed activities, students will engage in board games of their choosing. Students will discuss how different games (presented in class) can be used to increase mathematical skills. Students will be able to do math activities on a computer or other internet-ready device. Students will engage in activities through individual, small group, and whole group involvement.

Common Core Standards

4.QA.2. Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, E.G., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison

4.QA.S. Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself

Works Cited

National Governor's Association Center for Best Practices & Counsel of Chief States School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: Authors.

Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning. ( n.d. ). CRLT . Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.crit.umrich.edu/gsis/p2_5

Newman, R. (2013). Teaching and learning in the 21st century: Connecting the dots. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education

Retrieved from http://www.P21.org on the twenty-eighth day in October.

National Governor's Association Center for Best Practices & Counsel of Chief States School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: Authors.

Citation: National Governor's Association Center for Best Practices & Counsel of Chief, State School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards for English language arts and literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Washington, DC: Authors.

Number Two

Newman, R. (2013). Teaching and learning in the 21st century: Connecting the dots. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education