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Religions of the World

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Alexa Koch

on 23 February 2013

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Transcript of Religions of the World

Alexa Koch RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD Christianity Origins / History Buddhism Origins / History Hinduism Origins / History Judaism Islam Bibliography Followers & Areas of Prevalence Founded in the 1st century
Started as a small Jewish sect
First Christians were all Jewish
Quickly spread throughout the Greco-Roman world and following the age of exploration it spread accross the world
Originally it was persecuted under Roman Empire
Later became the official religon
3 main branches: The Roman Catholic Church, The Eastern Orthodox churches, and Protestant churches
Branches the result of theological disputes among christian believers
Originally, it was thought that non-Jewish converts had to become Jewish before they could become Christian, but St. Peter decided this was not true.
Since its creation, Christianity has become a more individual and distinct religion apart from Judaism. What is it? Christianity is the largest religion in the world
Estimated 2.18 billion Christians of all ages around the world
Nearly 1/3 of the total world population
One of the most widespread religions, no single continent or region can indisputably claim to be the center of global Christianity
1 century ago, Europe and Americas held 93% of Christian population
Now holds 63%
5 countries with the largest number of Christians: United States, Brazil, Mexico, Russia, & Philippines Beliefs / Rules Believe in 1 God
Believe in Creationism
God created everything at the beginning of the world in 6 days (the days of the week)
The 7th day is the Sabbath (Sunday), so Christians typically go to Church every Sunday
Do not believe in evolution
God has 1 son, Jesus
His mother is The Virgin Mary
Jesus was born in the city of Bethlehem, just over 2,000 years ago
He lived on Earth as a human
He had god-like powers
He was crucified, but he sacraficed his life so that humans on earth could have the forgivness of sins
They believe that Jesus is the Son of God, but also that he forms part of a godhead called the Holy Trinity
The Trinity is considered to be: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus) and the Holy Ghost (Holy Spirit)
To become Christian, you must get baptized
Involves touching with water or even total immersion in water
Christians also go through other religious 'sacraments' throughout life
These Include: Eucharist, Reconciliation, Comfirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders, and The Anointing of the Sick Holy Books & Writings All of Christian Rules, Beliefs, and Followings can be found in The Holy Bible
There are four books in the Bible that describe the life and mission of Jesus
Written by people living during Jesus' time
Originally written anonymously, just after his death
Later "Church Fathers attributed them to the disciples whose names they now bear"
The Gospel according to: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
Each is similar, but written from that person's perspective
Some more elaborate & detailed than others
They make up for (most) the New Testament along with some other sections
The Bible also holds the Old Testament
The Old Testament relates to the Hebrew people and their relationship with the Lord
Placed before Jesus' life Books of the Bible in Canonical Order

Old Testament:
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
Ezra
Nehemiah
Tobit
Judith
Esther
1 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Song of Songs
Wisdom
Sirach
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Baruch
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi

New Testament:
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation Places of Worship Christianity has the largest number of places of worship available to visit
In nearly every community in the country, a church can be found
Christians visit Churches usually once a week, every Sunday
There, they attend a Mass, or Liturgy
Mass is lead by a Priest
Includes singing hymns, various Bible readings, a homily or sermon, prayer, and the recieving of Eucharist
Christians also often pray at home or anywhere throughout their day alone or in groups Significant Sites Vatican City
Located within Rome, Italy
Home of the Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church
The word 'Pope' comes from Greek word 'pappas', a child's word for father
Vatican City's area is approximatley 110 acres
Population of just over 800
Smallest indepent state in the world Holy Days The Christian religion has its own clendar, called the Liturgical Calendar. It has 8 main sections or season, not all equal in length. Current, we are in Lent, a 40-day long period leading up to Easter Sunday. The 2 most largely celebrated Christian holidays are Christmas (December 25), the birth of Jesus Christ, and Easter Sunday (The first Sunday following the first full moon occuring on or after the first day of spring or vernal equinox) which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ. One of the oldest religions practiced today
Formed 5th century B.C.
Originated in northern India
Name comes from 'budhi', to awaken
Founded by Siddhartha Gotama about 2,500 years ago
He is known as 'The Buddha', or The Enlightened One
He is not a god nor has he ever claimed to be one
At the age of 29, made a realization that wealth and luxury do not guarantee happiness
Began his pursual of the key to human happiness
After 6 years of studies and meditation, found 'the middle path', and was enlightened
The Buddha then spent the rest of his life teaching the principles of Buddhism to others
Buddhism has experienced many modifications throughout its history
Consists of 3 major branches
The Theravada ("Doctrine of the Elders"), The Mahayana ("Great Vehicle), and The Vajrayana ("Diamond Vehicle," often simply called "Tibetan Buddhism")
There are also numerous smaller groups within these branches Beliefs / Rules The Buddha's teachings are often summarized in the Four Noble Truths
They form the basis of the first sermon Buddha delivered after enlightenment
4 Noble Truths: 1. Life means suffering, 2. The origin of suffering is attachment, 3. The cessation of suffering is attainable, 4. The path to the cessation of suffering
Buddhists do not worship or asks favors of Buddha
They only express their respect and gratitude for his teachings
Buddhists are very excepting of other religions
They do not preach and try to convert, only explain if an explanation is sought
Buddhism depends more on understanding than faith Followers & Areas of Prevalence There are an estimated 376 million followers worldwide
About 6% of world population
Most common in southeastern Asia Holy Books & Writings The Tripitaka is the earliest collection of buddhist writings
Originally were taught orally, but they were written down by 3rd century B.C.
Tripitaka means "the three baskets," (tri=three, pitaka=baskets)
The baskets are divided by subject matter
The first basket is the Discipline Basket (Vinaya Pitaka)
The second basket is the Discourse Basket (Sutra Pitaka)
The third basket is that of the Special Teachings (Abhidharma Pitaka) The Tripitaka is a large collection, running 45 volumes in one modern edition Places of Worship Significant Sites Holy Days Buddhists will often worship daily at home alone or in a group
They do this before a shrine containing an image of Buddha or a bodhisattva, usually with a candle or incense
Many visit Monasteries or Temples, especially on full moon days
Here, they chant or make offerings and listen to talks by monks Buddhist Pilgrimages are very popular sites
There are four main centres
1: Lumbini, where Buddha was born
2: Bodhgayar, where he gained enlightenment
3: Sarnath where he preached his first sermon and set in motion the wheel of law
4: Kushinagara, where he died and was cremated
There are other sites such as Dharasala, the home of the Dalai Lama
Pilgrimages are often lively joyful occasions with music and dancing
They remind people that they too can be enlightened and help them think about Buddha's teachings The Buddhist New Year (celebrated for three days from the first full moon day in April or on the first full moon day in January depending on the country)
Vesak, or "Buddha Day" (the first full moon day in May, celebrates the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha in 1 day)
Asalha Puja Day, or "Dhamma Day" (celebrated on the full moon day of the 8th lunar month, its purpose is to pay homage to the Buddha and commemorates the Buddha's first teaching)
Also many other holidays that are widley celebrated in Buddhist communities Buddhist Believers Carrying Lotus Laterns in a Parade Celebrating the Birthday of Buddha Followers & Areas of Prevalence Holy Days Holy Books & Writings Beliefs / Rules Places of Worship Significant Sites Earliest forms date to 1500 BC or earlier
Founded in India
Unique because it has no founder or date of origin
Hinduism is simply the religion of the people of India, which has gradually developed over four thousand years
The origins and authors of its sacred texts are largely unknown
Hinduism's roots date back as far as 2000 BC, making it one of the oldest surviving religions
Early history of Hinduism is unclear because of its great age
The development of the religion was influenced when nomadic Aryan Indo-European tribes invaded Northern India from Russia and Central Asia attacking the Harappan people who lived there in 1500 B.C.
Its history has also become a matter of political controversy because of its importance to Indian culture 9 Basic Beliefs:
Hindus believe in a one, all-pervasive Supreme Being who is both immanent and transcendent, both Creator and Unmanifest Reality
Hindus believe in the divinity of the four Vedas, the world's most ancient scripture, and venerate the Agamas as equally revealed. These primordial hymns are God's word and the bedrock of Sanatana Dharma, the eternal religion
Hindus believe that the universe undergoes endless cycles of creation, preservation and dissolution
Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each individual creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds
Hindus believe that the soul reincarnates, evolving through many births until all karmas have been resolved, and moksha, liberation from the cycle of rebirth, is attained. Not a single soul will be deprived of this destiny
Hindus believe that divine beings exist in unseen worlds and that temple worship, rituals, sacraments and personal devotionals create a communion with these devas and Gods
Hindus believe that an enlightened master, or satguru, is essential to know the Transcendent Absolute, as are personal discipline, good conduct, purification, pilgrimage, self-inquiry, meditation and surrender in God
Hindus believe that all life is sacred, to be loved and revered, and therefore practice ahimsa, noninjury, in thought, word and deed
Hindus believe that no religion teaches the only way to salvation above all others, but that all genuine paths are facets of God's Light, deserving tolerance and understanding. Yama & Niyama
10 main rules
Split into 2 groups: Niyama (things you should do), and Yama (things you shouldn't)
Yama: 1. Do not destroy or injure anything 2. Do not steal 3. Do not be envious 4. Do not lie 5. Do not overindulge or commit gluttony
Niyama: 6. Keep yourself clean, inside and out 7. Be contented 8. Practice self discipline, tolerance, patience and mental calmness 9. Educate yourself 10. Try to surrender your mind to the higher power
Hindu people have a fairly strict diet
Tamas, Rajas, and Sattva
Tamasic (heavy) foods such as meat and fermented foods (including alcohol) promote dullness and inertia
Rajasic (expanding) foods including onions, garlic, hot spices, stimulants, fish, eggs and salt. are thought excite intellect and passion which interfere with meditation
Sattvic (ascending) foods including fruits, vegetables and grains are thought to promote transcendence, sublimity and orderliness
Not all Hindu people are vegetarian, but they do not eat beef
Cows are considered sacred in the Hindu religion Most of the Hindu Population can be found in South or Southeast Asia
Also found in the United States and South Africa
Over 900 million followers
3rd largest religion
About 13% of world population Temples are the Hindu place of worship
However, it is not mandatory for a person to visit a temple
All Hindu homes usually have a small shrine or ‘puja room’ for daily prayers
Hindus usually only visit temples on special occasions or during religious festivals
Large temples were usually built at picturesque places, especially on river banks, on top of hills, and on the sea shore
Smaller temples can appear just about anywhere - by the roadside or even under a tree Varanasi
One of the oldest cities in the world
Home of famous 'Mandir', a golden temple dedicated to Hindu god Shiva
Many Hindus retire to Varanasi in the hope of achieving liberation
Corpses are transported hundreds of miles for cremation there

Mathura
Birthplace of Hindu god Krishna
Also very close to the villiage of Vrindavan, where Krishna lived

Many other significant villiages and sites Varanasi Mathura Diwali
Celebrates the New Year
Celebrated between late October and mid-November, lasting several days
Holi
Occurs in February/March, lasting 2-5 days
Spring festival associated with Krishna
Also celebrates creation and renewal
Raksha Bandhan
The Hindu festival that celebrates brotherhood and love
Celebrated in July/August
Also many more holidays Many Candles and Fireworks are Often Lit to Celebrate Diwali The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism
Collection of 4 sacred texts
Called the Vedas
Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda
Rig Veda is the oldest, it was composed about 1500 B.C.
The Vedas contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India
Among the most ancient religious texts still in existence
Outside of spiritual value, give a unique view of everyday life in India four thousand years ago Origins / History Places of Worship Significant Sites Beliefs / Rules Holy Books & Writings Holy Days Followers & Areas of Prevalence Muslims believed that there was only one God, whom they called 'Allah'
Muslims believed that if you did things which pleased Allah, you would have a good life on earth, and also a good life after you died

Six main Articles of faith in Islam:
To believe in the Oneness of Allah
To believe in all His Angels
To believe in all His Books
To believe in all His Prophets
To believe in the Day of Resurrection
To believe in the Decree of Allah

The Five Pillars of Islam (Declaration of the Islamic Faith):
Bearing witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
Observance of Prayer
Paying Zakat
Fasting during Ramadhan
Pilgrimage to the house of Allah The word “Islam” actually means “submission to God.” Therefore, “a Muslim is one who strives to submit to God.”
Founded in 610 A.D.
By a man named Mohammed
During Mohammed's time, polytheism reigned
Most people worshipped multiple gods
He was said to have had a 'vision from an angel', in which the angel told him “There is only one God, and His name is Allah. Worship Him.”
He devoted his life to teaching others the ways of the God Allah Origins / History Rules / Beliefs Significant Sites Places of Worship Followers & Areas of Prevalence Holy Days Holy Books & Writings A mosque is the house of prayer in Islam
A mosque is very important to Muslims
There are two types of mosques
The main mosque is called jamaca, and is the one where the friday prayer takes place
The other type of mosque is called a masjid
Masjod is a word meaning "place for prostration" Muhammad the Prophet Some holy cities to the Islam religion are:
Mecca (birthplace of Muhammad)
Medina (burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad)
Jerusalem (previous prophets were associated with the city, and that the Islamic prophet Muhammad visited the city on a nocturnal journey)
Karbala (famous for the Battle of Karbala, between a small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson, and a large group of military forces)
Najaf (the site of the tomb of Al ibn Ab Tlib, the cousin and son-in-law of the prophet Muhammad) Estimated 1.6 billion total Muslims around the world
1 billion of them located in the Asia-Pacific Region
Also prevalent in Middle East and North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa The date of the Muslim holidays vary greatly each year, because the Muslime religion has its own lunar calendar
It is currently the year 1434
Muharram (Islamic New Year)
Mawlid al-Nabi (Muhammad’s Birthday)
Ramadan (The Muslim month of fasting)
Eid al-Fitr (Last day of Ramadan)
Eid al-Adha (Festival of Sacrifice) The Holy Book of Islam is Al-Qur'an
Organized into chapters called surah, and verses called ayat
The entire text is divided into 30 sections called 'ajiza'
In order to simplify its reading over a month-long period About 15 million Jews around the world
Representing 0.2% of the global population
The majority located in North America
Large numbers also found in Middle East-North Africa, and Europe
Individual countries with largest Jewish population are:
United States, Isreal, Canada, France, United Kingdom Judaism is the oldest of the world's four biggest monotheistic religions
Origins dating back nearly 4 thousand years
The religion of the Israelites
Most scholars date the beginning of the religion of the Israelites to their 'forefather' in faith, Abraham, whose life is generally dated to approximately 2000-1800 B.C.
Around 1812 B.C., Abraham met God, and they established a covenent
This meeting is considered the beginning of the Jewish religion Synagogues are used for Jewish worship
In most cases worship takes place in Hebrew
Men and women usually sit separately in the Synagogues
Men are required to cover their heads
Jewish spiritual leaders are called Rabbis
A rabbi is not a priest and has no special religious status There is one, single, almighty God
He created the universe
Every Jew can have an individual and personal relationship with him
Prayer is to be directed to God alone and to no other
God will reward the good and punish the wicked
They believe in the Messiah, one who is anticipated as, regarded as, or professes to be a savior or liberator of the Jews
They believe that Jesus was not the Messiah, but that the Messiah has yet to come 4 Holy Cities
Jerusalem
Capital of Israel
Many important biblical events are said to have taken place in Jerusalem
Mentioned in the Torah, which is an important Jewish text
Other holy cities are: Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year)
Marks the anniversary of the creation of the world as described in the Torah
Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement)
Focus of the holiday is on repentance and final atonement before God before the books of life and death are sealed
Hanukkah
Celebrated for eight days and nights
This holiday commemorates the re-dedication of the holy Temple in Jerusalem following the Jewish victory over the Syrian-Greeks in 165 B.C.
Traditions of Hanukkah include gift-giving and lighting of a menorah Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)
Has remained unchanged since its creation in about 450 B.C.
Divided into 3 sections, Torah, Nevi'im, and Ketuvim
Consists of twenty-four books total, 5 in the Torah, 8 in the Nevi'im, and 11 in the Ketuvim
Together, the 5 books of the Tora makes up what is known to Christians as the Old Testament Christianity
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