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Transcript of Punctuation
What is it?
Punctuation makes possible the clear presentation of written language.
Ellipsis points (...)
An ellipsis is an omission of one or more words from a sentence.
"If you are getting your commas, semicolons and full stops wrong, it means that you are not getting your thoughts right," explained Dr. Temple.
As an end mark
End of a declarative or imperative sentence
A defendant may include counterclaims in his answer to the complaint.
Entire sentence inside parentheses
The defendant is not subject to the personal jurisdiction of this court. (See Form 2 for more information.)
Complete sentence into another sentence
The situation is not acceptable (as per defined in the regulations in force) and must be remedied immediately.
Citations in parentheses
The rule allows service on such added parties anywhere within 100 miles of the federal courthouse in which the action is pending (FRCP 4).
Federal Rules "shall not abridge, enlarge or modify any substantive right".
Federal Rules "shall not abridge, enlarge or modify any substantive right."
There is a constitutional challenge of the Act," stated the Prime Minister.
After an abbreviation of a name
Quotation at the end of a sentence
Quotation within a sentence
John F. Kennedy
After abbreviations formed by truncation
This agreement is entered into by John Smith, Social Security No. 123, and Mary Jones, Social Security No. 456.
et al. (and others); e.g. (for example); i.e. (that is to say)
The period receives the name of "dot"
As part of a command or filename
In web addresses
Conventional decimal marker in Britain and USA
The partnership capital shall amount to
Partners shall lose such capacity upon:
1. Voluntary withdrawal or resignation from the partnership.
2. Death or incapacity.
3. Expulsion from the partnership as per determined by the Managing Board.
Abbreviations without periods
After titles, headings and sub-headings
USA ; UK
The witness said “she had gave it [sic] to me.”
Order of Probation
The victim weighed of 75 kg and was 20 years old.
After an abbreviation of a title
Atty. Gen. Holder wants to reform our justice system.
- Special cases
LT (Lieutenant) ; PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)
Parentheses ( )
Question marks (?)
Exclamation marks (!)
Brackets ( [ ] )
Dash ( -- )
Hyphen ( - )
King, G. "Collins Improve your Punctuation". Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers.
Kirkman, J. "Punctuation Matters". New York, NY: Routledge.
Woods, G. "Webster’s New World. Punctuation: Simplified and Applied". Danvers, MA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
a.m. ; p.m.; AM ; PM
- Common titles
Mr., Mrs., and Ms.
Abbreviations at the end of a sentence
Before another punctuation mark
Abbreviations within a sentence
The defendant in this case is Johnson Inc.
Ltd. partners shall not take part in the management of the business.
The plaintiff John Doe sued defendant Johnson Inc. for patent infringement.
John Doe, hereinafter "the plaintiff", filed a complaint against Johnson Inc., hereinafter "the defendant."
NATO ; UNO
Period after true abbreviations (truncation)
Period after true abbreviations and after words from which the interior has been removed
Prof. Roberts was found guilty
Shareholders enjoy ltd. liability.
When items in a list are complete sentences
When the items in a list are NOT complete sentences
The felon was in possession of the following when arrested:
- 9 mm handgun
- disposable cell phone
- 50 grams of cocaine
With an ellipsis
At the end of a declarative or imperative sentence (three dots are joined by a fourth, which is the period)
The judge concluded with an open-ended remark and stated that the decision "should be left to faith alone...."
Indicate an unfinished statement
The brother of the victim promised to seek revenge...
Indicate an unfinished question or exclamation
Would you mind telling the judge what you saw or ...?
Omission of one or more complete sentences
The Court ruled against him. ... the plaintiff had deliberately failed to disclose crucial data and ...
Indicate that a list of items could run on almost endlessly
The document can be written in French only, English only, Spanish only, English and French ...