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Caesar and Rhetoric
Transcript of Caesar and Rhetoric
Persuasion & Rhetoric
The Three Appeals
A Little More on The Rhetorical Triangle....
What do you know about persuasion and rhetoric?
Persuasion is built on the power of words-the type
of words that grab your attention, keep you riveted,
and finally influence you to think.
What is the rhetorical triangle?
Shows the relationship between speaker, message, audience. Additionally, it shows how style, purpose, and tone affect that relationship. .
What is being said (message)
Who is saying it (speaker)
Who is listening (audience)
When/Where it is being said (context, appeals)
Why it is being said (purpose)
How it is being said (tone, style)
What is Rhetoric?
Ethical appeal is the the credibility of the speaker.
How do you achieve the credibility of the speaker? The following ways:
Make the audience believe that the writer is trustworthy.
Demonstrate that the speaker put in research time.
Support reasons with appropriate, logical evidence.
Demonstrate the speaker knows the audience and respects them.
Convince the audience that the speaker is reliable and knowledgeable.
Convince the audience that the speaker's ethics and morals align with audience's.
Emotional appeal is persuading the audience by appealing to their emotions.
How do you achieve the emotional appeal? The following ways:
Use language that uses the senses.
Include a bias or prejudice.
Include connotative language.
Explore euphemisms (making something sound better than it is).
Use figurative language
Experiment with informal language.
Logical appeal is persuading the audience by facts and data.
How do you achieve the logical appeal? The following ways:
Cite traditional culture.
Cite commonly held beliefs
Allude to history, religious texts, great literature, mythology.
Provide specific evidence
The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, esp. the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques.
Simply stated, rhetoric MAKES persuasion POSSIBLE!
What is Persuasion?
How is persuasion and rhetoric achieved? THROUGH RHETORICAL DEVICES. However, before we can look at that, you must first understand the basic components of a speech/essay!
These are the components that we are going to focus on during our study of Caesar. Please take note as the whole unit revolves on these fundamental ideas of rhetoric.
The three elements of the rhetorical triangle are connected and interdependent; you must have all three in order for a speech/argument to be well developed and effective!
Writers use who they are, what they know and feel, and what they’ve seen and done to find their attitudes (tone) toward a subject and their understanding of an audience.
Writers must always consider the audience, which means speculating about the audience's expectations, knowledge, and disposition with regard to the subject they explore.
The message is what the writer or speaker is trying to convince the audience. In other words, what is the main point being made.
What is the author’s attitude about his / her subject / message?
What words in the message let you know the tone?
How does the selection of the tone affect the audience’s reception of the message? Is it appropriate for the occasion/subject matter?
What strategies does the author employ in order to get his / her message across?
These strategies may include: ethos, logos, pathos; organization; diction; syntax; figurative language; grammatical structure; selection of details; imagery; rhetorical devices
The foundation of establishing tone is word choice and diction. These are the components that establish tone:
Specific Language (action verbs, precise nouns, and vivid adjectives)
Informal vs. Formal Language
Connotation (the emotional association of words)
We will be focusing on specific language, informal vs. formal
language, and connotation.
YOU MUST PAY ATTENTION TO DETAILS
TO UNDERSTAND TONE!!
Purpose is the specific reason or reasons for the writing/speech. Purpose is also the objective or the goal that the writer wishes to establish.
A writers purpose mights be:
Shock Call to Action
Support a Cause Promote Change
Refute a Theory Stimulate Interest
Win Agreement Provoke Anger
Now that we know what persuasion and rhetoric mean and the components of the rhetorical triangle, we are going to go one step further. To TRULY understand how rhetoric is established, one must look at the way rhetorical devices are used (STYLE). This requires close reading and -as previously stated- attention to detail!
Question that does not require a reply.
"Art thou mad? Is not the truth the truth?" (Henry IV, Part 1, II, iv)
Reference to a person, place, event, or literary work either directly or by implication (implying).
“O tomb, vaulted bride-bed in eternal rock, soon I shall be with my own again where Persephone welcomes the thin ghosts underground.”--Antigone, Scene IV
pretending to omit something by drawing attention to it →
A politician saying: “I will not even mention the fact that my opponent was a poor
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
“I died laughing.”
a substitution of a more pleasant expression for one whose meaning may come across as rude or offensive →
“He passed away,” rather than “He died.”
The duplication of any element of language, such as words, phrase clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.
In MLK's, "I Have a Dream" speech, MLK repeats the phrase "I have a dream".
The grammatical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity.
They were runn
, and laugh
. (ING Words)
laugh. (infinitive words)
The coach told the players that
get a lot of sleep, that
not eat too much, and that
do some warm-up exercises before the game. (clauses)
Opposition or juxtaposition of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel
"Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more." (Julius Caesar, III, ii)
"We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools." Martin Luther King, Jr.
What is an Easy Way to Remember to Analyze Persuasive Text?
ender-receiver relationship: What is the sender-receiver relationship. Who are the images and language meant to attract? Describe the speaker of the text.
essage-What is the message? Summarize the statement made in the text.
motional Strategies-What is the desired effect of the speech?
ogical Strategies-What logic is operating? How does it (or its absence) affect the message? Consider the logic of the images as well as the words.
anguage- What does the language of the text describe? What type of tone is used? How does the author use style to achieve his/her overall purpose? How does it affect the meaning or effectiveness of the writing? Consider the language of the images as well as the words.