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Pronatal and Antinatal Policies

All about pronatal and antinatal policies.

Anessa Pettis

on 15 May 2011

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Transcript of Pronatal and Antinatal Policies

Pro-natal and Anti-natal Policies Pro-natal Policies Pronatalism is a belief that promotes human reproduction. It encourages child-bearing and honors parenthood. Pro-natal policies limit access to abortion and contraception. They also create financial and social incentives for the population to reproduce. When a population decline occurs, some countries take in pronatal policies in order to increase the population and cease the decline in population. Anti-natal Policies Antinatalism is a belief that discourages human reproduction. It asserts a negative moral value judgment towards bearing a child and parenthood. Anti-natal policies are government programs designed to reduce the total fertility rate. These policies are used when countries are concerned with limiting population growth. Some countries do not have enough resources in order to support a large population, so the country must ccept anti-natal policies so that their poulation does not exceed what the country can support. Mongolia Pro-Natal Policy The Mongolian government has been encouraging a larger population. The pro-natal policy was possible for Mongolia due to labor shortage and economic aid from the Soviet Union. This economic aid has enabled Mongolia to meet the costs of supporting a large and economically unproductive group of children. By reinforcing the pro-natal policy, the Mongolian ethnic group will live on and the land, key institutions, and key enterprises will be staffed and taken care of by Mongolians rather than by management imported at the order of the Soviet Union. The current population is 3,133,318 people. It has a population growth rate of 1.489%. This population pyramid of 2000 shows that Mongolia's population has recently increased greatly due to Mongolia's pro-natal policy. China Anti-Natal Policy The one-child policy refers to the one-child limitation applying to a minority of families in the population control policy of the People's Republic of China (PRC). After the introduction of the one-child policy, the fertility rate in China fell from over three births per woman in 1980 to approximately 1.8 births in 2008. This 2005 Popoluation Pyramid of China shows that the population has decreased some since the anti-mnatal policy was enforced. I think it is good that China's population has decreased so that economic problem will go away, but the increase in abortions is devistating. I think it is important that The Mongolian population increases. That way the ethnicity of the Mongolian peopl will live on. China has a current population of 1,336,718,015 people. It has a population growth rate of 0.493%. Russia Pro-Natal Policy I think it is good that a pro-natal policy was issued, because Russia is dramatically decreasing in population and labor force. This population pyramid shows that Russia's population is still and will continue to decrease regardless of Russia's pro-natal policy. There were no obsticles placed in the way of early marriages by the government and the ruling party of Mongolia. In 1985, there were 6.3 marriages and 0.3 divorces per 1,000 people. In 1989, it was reported that every twentieth marriage broke up, that more than 15,000 mothers were receiving alimony from former husbands. It was also reported that 45,000 of the 870,000 children aged 15 and younger were illegitimate. Resident Chinese laborers were expelled from Mongolia in the late 1960s as a result of the SinoSoviet conflict. Some of the Chinese laborers' alleged offenses included the possession and the distribution of contraceptives. Childbearing was promoted as every woman's patriotic obligation, and women were rewarded for reproducing. Working women were granted a maternity leave of 101 days, and the Labor Law prohibited dismissal of pregnant women and of those with children younger than one year. Parents also received family allowances in cash. Subsidies were also paid to families with more than four children younger than sixteen, and this could add up to as much as an average industrial wage. Women with five or more living children received the Order of Maternal Glory, Second Class, medal and an annual subsidy of 400 tugriks per child. Women with more than eight children received the Order of Maternal Glory, First Class, and 600 tugriks per child. The medals entitled the mothers to all-expenses paid annual vacations of two weeks at the hot springs spa of their choice, huge discounts in fees for child care, and other benefits. Marriage and childbearing were also were promoted by a special tax being put on unmarried and childless citizens between the ages of twenty and fifty. The Mongolian population rose to 2 million in 1987.The government's Central Statistical Board determined that one of the 260 babies born July 11 (Mongolia's National Day) was the 2 millionth citizen. Twenty-five of the babies were selected as "Two Million Babies." The state awarded each of their families two new residences , the Children's Foundation awarded each a 5,000-tugrik subsidy, and local governments and the parents' workplaces also gave gifts. This policy officially restricts married, urban couples to have only one child. It does allow exemptions for rural couples, ethnic minorities, and parents without any siblings themselves though. It was reported that approximately 35.9% of China's population is currently subject to the one-child restriction. The Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau and foreigners living in China are exempted from this policy. This anti-natal policy was introduced in 1978 and initially applied to first-born children in the year of 1979. It was created by the Chinese government to ease social, economic, and environmental problems in China. Authorities claim that the policy has prevented between 250 and 300 million births from its implementation until 2000, and 400 million births from 1979 to 2011. The policy has been accused of increasing forced abortions,female infanticide, and underreported female births. It is also a possible cause behind China's gender imbalance. A son is needed to take care of the parents so the parents favor having a son rather than a daughter. This can result in abortions if the baby is a girl. It has been reported that 76% of the Chinese population supports the policy. The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. Population and Family Planning Commissions exist at every level of government to raise awareness about the issue and carry out registration and inspection work. There are still many citizens that continue to have more than one child regardless of the anti-natal policy. In 2008, China's National Population and Family Planning Commission said that the policy will remain in place for at least another decade. In 2010, it was announced that the majority of the citizens first subject to the policy are no longer of reproductive age and it has been speculated that many citizens simply disregard or violate the policy in more recent years. The deputy director of the Commission stated that the policy would remain unaltered until at least 2015. In March 2011, the Chinese government reviewed the policy and expressed considerations to allow for couples to have a second child. The Chinese government estimates that it had three to four hundred million fewer people in 2008 with the one-child policy, than it would have had otherwise. Chinese authorities consider that this anti-natal policyw as a great success in helping to implement China's current economic growth. The population reduction has reduced the severity of problems that come with overpopulation. With the one-child policy in place, China still has one million more births than deaths every five weeks. Pro-natalist policy measures enacted by the Soviet government in the 1980s led to an increase in fertility rates in the mid-1980s, owing largely to a rise in the number of second births. In 2007, the government instated a reward of 250,000 rubles for having a second child. President Vladmir Putin dismissed the environmental risk of overpopulation in May 2006 when he said that pro-natal policies are necessary to make Russia’s population crisis better. He referred to Russia's population crisis as Russia's most serious problem. Russia boasts profits from natural resources, but it only has one-third of the per capita income of developed nations. The detrimental health status and low-life expectancy contributes to Russia’s long-term economic risks: reductions in savings rates, fewer education investments, less productive workers, and the reluctance of foreign investment. Russia is in need of a population growth.The nation's economy has suffered through twenty years of decreasing human capital, and yielded a seven percent decline in 2009's first quarter. Demographic projections estimate that Russia’s shrinking labor force will reduce innovative efforts and result in economic and social deterioration. Younger generations are already beginning to bare responsibilities for the multiplicity of unemployed, older generations. In May 2008, The Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) reported that Russia suffers from “population implosion” due to low birthrates and deteriorating life expectancy and health. CSIS predicts that the elderly population may double by 2050, and the median age will rise from 37 to 49. Demographers project that Russia’s population will resemble an upside down pyramid by 2050, with the majority of citizens at the top in the elderly bracket, and fewer, migrating younger generations toward the bottom. Russians are fearful about the additional child payment program. The total costs of child rearing, such as baby equipment, health services, social activities, and education, exceed the government’s financial assistance. Conservationists are also skeptical about the benefits of paying families to have more children. Russia has recently tried alternative, less globally threatening means for increasing its labor force. On March 22, 2009, President Vladmir Putin began a repatriation program that gives cash, social benefits, passports, and employment opportunities to former natural born citizens, upon their return to Russia. The number of newborns in the Russian Federation in 2009 was projected to be 200,000 fewer than in 2008. It was reported in 2009 that women blaimed the pro-natal campaign in Russia for their abortions. When the women got pregnant in response to the government telling them that they needed to have babies, many of them found themselves or their partners out of work and, as a result, had to get an abortion. The current population is 138,739,892 people. It has a population growth rate of -0.47%. Thanks for watching!
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