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Petroleum Geology Geophysics

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daryll jamolin

on 2 June 2015

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Transcript of Petroleum Geology Geophysics

Oil and Gas Production (end of 2000)
•Produced 11GL of oil
•Produced 0.11 BCM of gas
•Remaining known reserves - 33.42 GL of oil and 668.55 BCM of gas
SEDIMENTOLOGY
Sedimentary contents found abundantly:

limestone, sandstone, siltstone, basalt, coal, glacial coarse clastic sediments.

PETREL SUB BASIN
"Hyland Bay Subgroup Intraformational Seals"
SEDIMENTOLOGY
Carboniferous age in the onshore areas and equivalent shallow marine shales and thin sandstones offshore are overlain by fluvial to marine clastics with minor carbonates.

Thank you!
BONAPARTE BASIN
Major Oilfields
•Jabiru - Initial recoverable reserves are estimated at 96 MMSTB
•Challis /Cassini – Produced 60 MMBBL of oil
•Skua-Swift/Swallow-Montara – Produced 20.5 MMBBL of oil
•Laminaria/Coralline – Mostly oil and had produced 187.8 MMBBL of oil
•Elang/Kakatua/Kakatua North – Produced 31.3 MMBBL of light, low sulfur crude oil
•Bayu Undan – Mostly gas concentrate and its recoverable reserves of more than 3.4 TcF of natural gas and approx 400 MMBBL of liquid hydrocarbons.

Petroleum Geology Geophysics
Case Study: The "Bonaparte Basin"
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
Petrel Sub Basin
Vulcan Sub Basin
Presented by:
Yii Ni Shun
Chan Mann Shih (Catherine)
Lim Wei Qing
Pui Sin Ying (Sasa)
Daryll Jamolin

THE END!! :)
Oil and Gas Distribution
Oil - Vulcan Sub Basin and Northwest of basin
Condensate – Sahul Platform and northwest of basin
Gas – Calder Graben, Petrel Sub basin and Sahul Platform
Coarse clastic sediments with a strong glacial influence are overlain by lacustrine to estuarine deposits onshore and equivalent marine to deltaic siliciclastic sediments and marginal marine sands and shales with minor limestones and coals offshore.

Early to Late Permian sedimentation consists of a regressive - transgressive cycle ii-om pro deltaic and open marine shales to marine and deltaic clastics with minor carbonates.

Marine Shales of Cape Hay
Formation and Biomicrite Limestones of Dombey
Pearce Formations
Reservoir Quality
Excellent
- Keyling Formation Sandstones

Poor
- Carboniferous sandstones due to calcareous matrices and authigenic clays
Vulcan Sub Basin
Main Exploration Targets beneath the regional seals
Clastic Units within pre-rift and syn-rift
Reservoirs present
Shallow marine Upper Triassic Nonne
Oxfordian barrier sandstone
Tithonian submarine fan sandstones of Vulcan formation
SEALS
Claystones and Marls of overlying Jamieson Formation
Petrel Sub Basin
•Mostly dry gas
•Reservoirs found – Permian Keyling and Treachery, Permo-Carboniferous Kuriyippi, Carboniferous Tanmurra, Kingfisher Shale and Yow Creek
•Gas discoveries are dominate in the central portions of the Petrel sub-basin
•In Keyling Formation – oil are found where its oil gravity ranges from 30 to 36º API and 50ºAPI in liquids associated with the Petrel gas discovery
Major Oilfields
Vulcan Sub Basin
•Most hydrocarbon found – Brown light oils (39-51.75 API)
•Range in composition from paraffinic, napthenic to paraffinic-napthenic crudes
•Low in sulfur (50-980 ppm)
•Low in nickel and vanadium (approx. 1ppm)
•Commercial production from 4 of these discoveries which are the Challis, Cassini, Jabiru and Skua oil fields

Tectonics Related
2 phases of Paleozoic Extension
late Triassic compressional event
Miocene to Holocene convergence of Indo - Australia & Southeast asian microplates

Generation of Petroleum
Organic
- Accumulated and trapped in sedimentary rock layers
ie. kerogen
Inorganic
- formed from reduction and oxidation of carbon
ie. methane
Vulcan Sub Basin
HYDROCARBON MIGRATION
Factors affecting migration
Porosity
Permeability
Tectonic Stress
Porosity
Volume that is occupied by void spaces within the rock grains
More porous - more void spaces
Stores liquids and gases
Porosity
Source rocks - Claystone, Shale (High)
Reservoir rocks - Limestone and Dolomite (Low)
Fracturing - oil produced
Primary Migration
When hydrocarbons moves from source rock beds to reservoir rock
Sediment compaction due to overburden load results to reduction of pore spaces
Secondary Migration
Migration of hydrocarbons within the reservoir rocks.
Accumulates in structural traps
Some gas might have been dissolved in the oil phase.
Buoyancy due to difference in densities.
Permeability
Concept to transmit fluid or gas
Depends upon porosity, interconnections between voids, size of voids / pore throat.
Tectonic Stress
Subduction of one oceanic plate beneath a continental plate at a compressive / collisional boundary.
Resulting to;
Rock deformation (pore bulk)
Trap structure
Migration (fluid pressure)
TRAP MECHANISM
Storage for hydrocarbons
Acts as seal or barrier
Structural / stratigraphic trap
Consists of a cap rock (impermeable)

Petrel Sub Basin
Structural / stratigraphic traps (contains sandstone and carbonate)
Salt dome within Paleozoic section
Wells drilled have unsuccessfully tested traps associated with diaper structure (salt).
Reefal facies of Carboniferous Tanmurra Formation formed on salt-induced seafloor.
Vulcan Sub Basin
2 Major Fault types identified
Horst blocks in South
Hour glass structure in North
Discovery of Paqualin and Swan salt diaper.
Untested Mesozoic includes roll-overs into the fault, fans, scour and pinchouts.

Reference
Australian Oil and Gas. (2011). Retrieved from:
http://www.australianoilandgas.com.au/pdf/AOG_Exploration_Programme_Year1-5.pdf

Conoccophilips. (2005). Retrieved from:
http://nopsema.gov.au/assets/epsummaries/EP-Summary-CoP-Barossa.pdf

Ahmad M. & Munson TJ. (2013). Geology and mineral resources of the Northern Territory. Chapter 36:
Bonaparte Basin. Northern Territory Geological Survey, Special Publication 5.

Pedersen Halvard J. (2010). Oil and Gas Geology: Hydrocarbon Generation. http://oilandgasgeology.com/

Leythaeuser D. (2015). Encyclopedia of Hydrocarbons: Chapter 1.2 “Origin, migration and accumulation of petroleum”. Acessed May 25. http://www.treccani.it/export/sites/default/Portale/sito/altre_aree/Tecnologia_e_Scienze_applicate/enciclopedia/inglese/ inglese_vol_1/pag065-84ing3.pdf

Cooperman S. Phd. (2015). Geology of Oil: “Petroleum Migration”. Accessed May 25. http://dnr.louisiana.gov/assets/TAD/education/BGBB/3/migration.html

Reference
Michele G. Bishop. "TOTAL PETROLEUM SYSTEMS OF THE BONAPARTE GULF BASIN AREA, AUSTRALIA: JURASSIC, EARLY CRETACEOUS-MESOZOIC; KEYLING, HYLAND BAYPERMIAN; MILLIGANS-CARBONIFEROUS, PERMIAN." U.S. Geological Survey Publications Warehouse. (1999) Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/ofr-99-0050/OF99-50P/OF99-50P.pdf.

D.M Pegum. "An Introduction to the Petroleum Geology of the Northern Territory of Australia." Home - Northern Territory Government. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.nt.gov.au/d/Minerals_Energy/Geoscience/Content/File/Pubs/IntroPetGeologyNT.pdf.

"Regional Geology of the Bonaparte Basin." Offshore Petroleum Exploration Acreage Release | Department of Industry. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.petroleum-acreage.gov.au/files/files/2014/documents/regional-geology/Regional_Geology-Bonaparte.pdf.

D.S Edwards et.al. "Geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbons from the Vulcan Sub-basin, western Bonaparte Basin, Australia." Home - Geoscience Australia. Retrieved from http://www.ga.gov.au/corporate_data/41876/MS13_Edwards_2004_03_23.pdf.


Reference
Bonaparte Oil Ltd. "Bonaparte Basin." Australian Oil & Gas Ltd (Receivers and Managers Appointed) :: Gas Exploration Company. Retrieved from http://www.australianoilandgas.com.au/pdf/AOG_Bonaparte_Basin.pdf.

"Bonaparte Basin - Geoscience Australia." Home - Geoscience Australia. Retrieved from. http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/energy/province-sedimentary-basin-geology/petroleum/offshore-northwest-australia/bonaparte.

Ahmad M, and Munson TJ. "Geology and mineral resources of the Northern Territory." Home - Northern Territory Government. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.nt.gov.au/d/Minerals_Energy/Geoscience/Content/File/Pubs/SpecialPublication5/GNT_Ch36_Bon.pdf.

A.J Mory. "GEOLOGY OF THE OFFSHORE BONAPARTE BASIN NORTHWESTERN AUSTRALIA." Department of Mines and Petroleum - Home.(1991). Retrieved from http://www.dmp.wa.gov.au/documents/gswa_report_29.pdf.




"Petrel and Vulcan Sub Basin are organic rich"
Average porosity = 16.7%
NTG (Net-to-gross) = 51.5%
Significant loss caused by diagenesis (pore-clogging clay or collapsed lithic grains.
Hydrocarbon accumulations were considered possible at depth 2400 m - 3300 m
Petrel Sub Basin
Average porosity = 12.45%
Average permeability = 276.60 mD

Hydrocarbon accumulation were considered possible anywhere between the depth (2438.4 m and 4876.8 m)
INTRODUCTION
Largely predominantly offshore,
Composite polyphase sedimentary basin, extending from onshore coastal areas along North-West Australian border northward into Timor Sea across Australian’s continental margins.
Covers an area approximately
270 000 sq.km
, with the onshore portion being about
20 000 sq.km
.
Petrel Sub-Basin
Compression causes uplift and erosion
inversion structure and anticline & syncline
evaporitic sequence deposition
salt dome
Vulcan Sub-Basin
Comprises a complex series of horsts, grabens and terraces.
Faulting
Two diaper salt (Swan and Paqualin)
STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
Composite Basin
Superposition of Paleozoic and Mesozoic extensional regimes
Over 5000 metres of paleozoic sediments deposit
An evaporitic sequence deposited at Late Silurian to Early Devonian
Full transcript