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Camera: A History in the Making
Transcript of Camera: A History in the Making
That's a pretty cool story right? The first digital camera was introduced in the late 1980s and it wasn't until the early 1990s that camera companies used the term 'megapixel'. A megapixel is composed of one million pixels . The more pixels that the camera has, the higher quality the photo will turn out. According to the graph, over the years, the innovation in camera technology has skyrocketed to an astounding 80 megapixels . Environment The innovation of camera technology also brought about some large environmental impacts, both positive and negative.
According to the College of Engineering at Dartmouth, to manufacture a 32MB DRAM chip, it uses a total of 41MJ of energy. In more familiar terms, that is 41,000,000 watts. Think of your average 100 watt lightbulb and make a comparison .
With the Dartmouth engineers, the might have been consuming a lot of energy, but they also have thought of a process to help save and reuse: Environmental Solutions Avoidance (no CFCs, lead)
Reduction (water purification, eliminating hard elements)
Disposal http://antonyjohn.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/thinking-cap.gif After new photographic technologies were discovered in the 19th century, the camera replaced the need of an artist for family portraits, but through innovation the cost of the camera became more affordable and less directed toward professional use in the later half of the 20th century. Early History The first camera that produced a physical image on paper was discovered by a French inventor. His main focus was not on the camera, but on a combustion engine. It was by chance that through trial and error, he created the first physical photograph in the 1800s . 1822 Nicéphore Niépce Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1833) invented the first process to take a permanent photograph using a camera, in France . http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Joseph_Nicéphore_Niépce.jpg Components of an SLR http://img.photographycourse.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/diagrama111.jpg The introduction of the SLR (single lens reflex) camera brought about a new means of photography. The camera itself uses 35mm film and is made up of many complicated components. The use of an SLR camera is geared more towards professional users that have the experience and knowledge of how to use this technology . From personal experience, if the lighting, focus, or aperture is slightly off, it will result in a dark or blurry photo. New Means of Photography http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/View_from_the_Window_at_Le_Gras%2C_Joseph_Nicéphore_Niépce.jpg This is Niépce's earliest surviving photograph of scenery overlooking the countryside. The photo dates back all the way to 1826. The discovery of permanent photographs shaped a new way for the future of how we see and share ideas, images, and entertainment . Bibliography Benoit Cushman, “Environmental Issues in the Electronics Industry.” Dartmouth College of Engineering (accessed October 25, 2012). Wikipedia contributors, "Nicéphore Niépce," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Nicéphore_Niépce (accessed October 11, 2012). “What’s the Highest Megapixel Camera in the World,” Squidoo, http://www.squidoo.com/whats-the-highest-megapixel-camera-in-the-world [accessed October 18, 2012].
“Digital Camera History,” timetoast, http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/38455 [accessed October 18, 2012].  Wikipedia contributors, "Nicéphore Niépce," 1. The photographic camera by Niépce however was never commercially produced. It wasn’t until an American by the name of Alexander S. Wolcott that mass production may have occurred. Wolcott’s idea developed over time and with the help of a partner by the name of John Johnson Sr. they were able to develop a rendition of the daguerreotype camera that housed a mirror instead of an actual lens. To whether they mass-produced it, it is unknown . http://api.ning.com/files/MWwECBxcyMTA3TesGjT4gc6pJ3I6Jb6a88DnaABD6l6i8F23uWy60OvaDriEjLa2LF9PymcgusC*tNuOD1ojcfkzSPEiIKJn/beard.jpg This is the camera designed by Wolcott, which is the first camera to ever receive a patent. According to an article, John Johnson’s father, William Johnson, took the idea of their invention to England in hopes of seeking someone to partner up and protect the patent of the camera. There was only one Englishmen in London that had the license to produce daguerreotype cameras from Daguerre and his name was Richard Beard. He agreed to protect the patent rights of Wolcott & Johnson. It was then as a result of this that the first ever portrait studio opened in England by Beard. There was no record that Beard had commercialized and mass-produced the camera, but it is said that the invention of Wolcott & Johnson’s camera limited the time of a photograph from 30 minutes, down to five minutes. This in turn accelerated the production of the photographic camera because, since Beard was jointly partnered with Wolcott & Johnson, he was then able to produce and open portrait studios (one would assume) among many cities throughout England . Patents The patent for their camera was similar to the Daguerreotype, but unlike the Daguerreotype, their camera had a mirror instead of a lens. The camera was influenced by an associated Mr. Henry Fitz. His mirroring process had a similar function to that of celestial telescopes. The patent was received on May 8, 1940. The patent number was US Patent No. 1582. Alexander Wolcott with assistance from John Johnson and Henry Fitz developed the first ever camera process that was patented. This is important because this set a basis not only for camera innovation, but also for obtaining patents . http://www.historiccamera.com/librarium/wolcott/wolcott_image1.gif Law of Reciprocity “The science of photography refers to the use of science, such as chemistry and physics, in all aspects of photography.” The use of chemistry for the chemical make up of processes used by film photography, and the use of physics as a scientific means of innovation resulting in the development of digital technologies. The most significant scientific law of photography is the Law of Reciprocity. The Law of Reciprocity is as follows: “Exposure (alpha) Aperture Area × Exposure Time × Scene Luminance.” This describes the function of taking a photo in regards to the relationship between light intensity and duration, and in turn make an exposure. The idea for this scientific law came from the thinking of Robert Bunsen and Henry Roscoe in 1862 . Photography and Society With the introduction of the photographic portrait, there was an important correspondence to the social development of Western Europe. This was seen as a rise of economic and political power obtained by the middle classes. By having a portrait taken, one could visually represent their social status to themselves and to society . "Photography, which entered the public domain in 1839, owes much of its popularity and rapid social development to the continuing vogue of the portrait."  As compared to the price of a painted portrait, the price of a photographic portrait was one-tenth the cost. During the late 1800s in France, this was favored by the bourgeois and satisfied his pocketbook . http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-3aMQ0XLcFZ0/T6Y-6LTuS1I/AAAAAAAAAak/SV-X11nwftA/s1600/brooklynbridge46.jpeg Art & Photography Two types of professional photographers have emerged from photography. There are "concerned" photographers which deal with social issues through expression and those who use it as a means of personally using photography for artistic expression . Amateur Photography Ever since the invention of the camera, amateur photography has existed, but it wasn't until the introduction of the Kodak camera in 1888, that amateur photography became popular. The camera was priced at $25 and contained a roll of film with 100 exposures. From here on out, photography was used by many travelers and mass production began . http://www.symbian-freak.com/images/news/09/04/amateur_photographer_00.jpg Health Hazards Most contact with harmful chemical compounds occurs during the development process of photographs. These chemicals range from highly toxic to the most harmless. With respect to color photography, many of these chemicals have never been thoroughly tested for toxicity. Most of these chemicals are skin irritants and are inhaled as a result of the chemical being released into the air . Glycin
Sulfuric acid Some of these harmful chemicals include: First Commercialization  Wikipedia contributors, "Reciprocity (photography)," 1.  Wikipedia contributors, "Nicéphore Niépce," 1.  Wikipedia contributors, "Nicéphore Niépce," 1.  Historic Camera, “Alexander S. Wolcott,” Historic Camera History Librarium, 1.  Historic Camera, “Alexander S. Wolcott,” Historic Camera History Librarium, 1. Freund, Gisele. 1980. Photography & society. Boston: D.R. Godine.  Freund, Photography & society, 9.  Freund, Photography & society, 11.  Freund, Photography & society, 201.  Freund, Photography & society, 193.  "What's the Highest Megapizel Camera in the World, Squidoo, 1. "Digital Camera History," timetoast, http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/38455 [accessed October 18, 2012].  Cushman, Environmental Issues in the Electronics Industry," 8.  Cushman, Environmental Issues in the Electronics Industry," 9. : Shaw, Susan, and Monona Rossol. 1991. Overexposure: health hazards in photography. New York, N.Y.: Allworth Press.  Shaw and Rossol. "Overexposure: health hazards in photography," 101.   Shaw and Rossol. "Overexposure: health hazards in photography," 103-112. David Pogue. “Breaking the Myth of Megapixels.” New York Times, February 8, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/08/technology/08pogue.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. (Accessed October 18, 2012).  Historic Camera, “Alexander S. Wolcott,” Historic Camera History Librarium, 1.  Pogue,“Breaking the Myth of Megapixels,” 1. Wikipedia contributors, "Single-lens reflex camera," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Single-lens_reflex_camera&oldid=527800559 (accessed December 14, 2012).  Wikipedia contributors, "Single-lens reflex camera," 1. Photographic Cameras: Early to Modern http://www.pimall.com/nais/pivintage/images/firestbuttond.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Brownie2_overview.jpg/220px-Brownie2_overview.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Ur_Leica.jpg http://static.photo.net/attachments/bboard/00T/00TW8h-139499584.jpg http://www.vintage-instant.com/shop/catalog/08b_R01.jpg http://clickwhirl.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/disposable-camera.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-CaFm6T9k7Sw/Tx8WbSEwIpI/AAAAAAAAF38/Hp2DqzIgEoQ/s1600/Apple+Quicktake+200.jpg http://www.hightech-edge.com/wp-content/uploads/canon-eos-rebel-t2i-dslr-camera.jpg Materials Wood
Glass Photography & Politics "Photography in its many forms proved to be viable political tools, not only to propagandize but also to express public outrage, encourage national confidence, and ridicule public figures." * * Freund, Photography & society, 161. Film is a necessary standard in a camera because, before digital technology, film, no matter what format had to be standard in a camera in order for it to take photos. Film is where the image is stored once you take a photo. The aperture opens and lets light in for an instance so that it can be transferred to the exposure that it is on. Without film, there would be no pictures. Standards