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Transcript of Neo Behaviorism
Neo Behaviorism is behavior cannot be fully understood simply in term of observable stimuli and reactions.
Neo Behaviorism introduced mediating variables into the behaviorist stimulus- response scheme.
Edward Chace Tolman
Edward Chace Tolman spent most of his professional life on the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley.
His major work was Purposive Behaviorism in Animals and Men published in 1932.
Tolman believed that learning is a cognitive process. Learning involves forming beliefs and obtaining knowledge about the environment and then revealing that knowledge through
purposeful and goal-directed behavior
Tolman’s system was called purposive behaviorism because it studies behavior as it is organized around purposes.
A new stimulus (the sign) becomes associated with already meaningful stimuli (the significate) through series of pairings; there was no need for reinforcement in order to establish learning.
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
People learn from one another by observational learning, imitation, and modeling.
Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism
Bandura’s social learning theory
Applications of Each Theory in Teaching
Tolman's Key Concept
Learning is always purposive and goal-directed
Individuals act on beliefs, attitudes, changing conditions, and they strive towards goals. Tolman saw behavior as holistic, purposive, and cognitive.
Learning the location of reward. Once an individual has learned where a given kind of reward is located, that location can often be reached by means other than those originally used.
Example: A shopper finds an interesting store while exploring a city on foot. The shopper can then return to the store either by car or bus.
Whenever learning goes on without its being evident in performance at the time.
Rats spent several nights in mazes with- out being fed.
½ found their way to the goal box without reinforcement.
They develop cognitive maps without rewards.
General principles of social learning theory
•People can learn by observing the behavior of others.
•Learning can occur without a change in behavior.
•Cognition plays a role in learning.
•It is a bridge or transitions between behaviorist learning theory and cognitive learning theory.
How the environment reinforces and punishes modeling
1.The observer is reinforced by the model.
2.The observer is reinforced by a third person
3.The imitated behavior itself leads to reinforcing consequences
4.Consequences of the model’s behavior affect the observer’s behavior vicariously.
Contemporary social learning perspective of reinforcement and punishment
•Both reinforcement and punishment have indirect effect on learning.
•Influence the extent to which an individual exhibits a behavior that has been learned.
•The expectation of reinforcement influences cognitive processes that promote learning.
Effects of modeling on behavior
•Modeling teaches new behavior.
•Modeling influences the frequency of previously learned behaviors.
•Modeling may encourage previously forbidden behavior.
•Modeling increases the frequency of similar behavior.
Cognitive factors in social learning
4.Reciprocal causation: the three variables, the person, the behavior, and the environment can have an influence on each other
5.Modeling:there are different types of modes:
live model–actual demonstration symbolic
model - person or action portrayed in other medium (television, videotape, computer programs)
Tolman and Bandura
Conditions necessary for effective modeling to occur
•Attention –the person must pay attention to the model
•Retention –the observer must the able to remember the behavior
•Motor reproduction –the ability to replicate the behavior
•Motivation –learner must want to demonstrate what they have learned.
Educational implications of social learning theory
•Students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people.
•Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase the appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones.
•Modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teaching new behaviors.
•Teachers and parents must model appropriate behaviors.
•Teachers should expose students to a variety of other models.
Cognitive factors in social learning
1.Learning without performance:
a distinction between learning through observation and the actual imitation
2.Cognitive processing during learning:
attention is the critical factor for learning
3.Expectations: people form expectations about the consequences that future behaviors are likely to bring.
The Concept of Intervening Variable
Learning is mediated or is influenced by expectations, perceptions, representations, needs and other internal or environmental variables.
Example: hunger was the intervening variable with rats
Reinforcement not essential for learning
Tolman concluded that reinforcement is not essential for learning although it provides an incentive for performance.
Rat was able to acquire knowledge of the way through a maze even in the absence of reinforcement.
Albert Bandura OC (born December 4, 1925) is a psychologist. For almost six decades, he has been responsible for contributions to many fields of psychology, including social cognitive theory, therapy and personality psychology, and was also influential in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. He is known as the originator of social learning theory and the theoretical construct of self-efficacy, and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment.