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Transcript of Boxer Rebellion
Each force was to assault a different gate, where they would enter and continue through the city. However, the Americans decided to scale a wall
This took up the entire day.
During the next morning, Boxer troops were still in control of the Imperial and Forbidden Cities, the innermost regions of Peking.
The empress, Cixi, had to escape under the guise of a peasant woman.
Many were peasants from the Shandong Province.
By the late 19th century, Westerners and Japan were forcing the Qing-dynasty- China to accept foreign control over their affairs. In the late 1890’s the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists(the Boxers) were carrying out regular attacks on imperialists.
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The Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. It was the last Chinese government that ruled in absolute monarchy (1644-1911).
Constitutional monarchy: 1911-1912
• 1644–1661 Shunzhi
• 1908–1912 Puyi (last)
• 1908–1912 Zaifeng
• 1911 Yikuang
• 1911–1912 Yuan Shikai
The Rebellion in a Nutshell
The Boxer Rebellion was an uprising which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty against the imperialism of the foreign nations.
It was initiated by the Yihetuan and was motivated by pro-nationalist sentiments and opposition to foreign imperialism. The Eight-Nation Alliance intervened and defeated the Chinese forces.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was made of nations of Japan, Russia, UK, France, US, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
The rebellion took place between November 2, 1899 – September 7, 1901
Origin of the Name Boxers
The Opium Wars
The name was originated from the practices the Chinese rebels performed, such as rituals and exercises in martial arts(Kung-Fu) that they believed would give them the ability to withstand bullets. Westerners referred to these ceremonies as shadow boxing, leading to the Boxers nickname.
Drive all foreigners out of China, particularly those who had received privileges in China
Remove their influences
Destruction of Roman catholic priests and converters
Aim's of the Boxers
The term Opium Wars refers to the 1st and 2nd Opium Wars.
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These peasants were struck by many natural disasters.
They learned and practiced martial arts that they believed would allow them to withstand bullets and other attacks.
They loathed the foreigners and how they were taking apart China.
Results of the Opium Wars
The Opium Wars weakend China. China had to sign the Treaty of Nanjing which enabled the British to control lots of Chinese territory. Then, because of China's economic problem, China had to let all of Europe trade. The trade allowed European influence to become more widespread in China. The Chinese were angry at the Western and European influence causing them to rebel.
Results of the Rebellion
Even though the Boxers were basically destroyed, they had one major accomplishment.
Created a swell of Chinese nationalism.
Because of the Boxers, many Chinese nationalists continued to fight the imperial powers.
The Opium Wars mainly took place in the province of Guangdong.
During the Second Opium War in 1856–1860,
British and French forces fought towards the
legalization of the opium trade and to open all
of China to British merchants.
The First Opium War, during 1839–1842, was concluded by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.
The treaty ceded the island of Hong Kong to the United Kingdom for fifty years, and it established five treaty ports at Shanghai, Canton, Ningpo, Fuchow, and Amoy.
In the beginning of the rebellion the Boxers outnumbered the Eight-Nation Alliance. The Boxers alone had 100,000-300,000. However, there were also 100,000
Imperial Qing army troops.
The Eight-Nation Alliance only
had ≈50,000 in total. One
important battle was the
Battle/Seige of Peking.
Causes of Conflict
International tension and local unrest
There was lots of missionary activity in China
The Treaty of Tientsin allowed foreign missionaries to preach anywhere in China. This led to a series of attacks on priests from multiple religions.
After the German government took over Shandong, many Chinese feared that the foreign missionaries were trying to divide and colonize China.
Battle of Peking
After the Rebellion was over China was prohibited from importing arms for two years and it agreed to pay more than $330 million in reparations to the foreign nations involved.The Qing dynasty, established in 1644 was weakened by the rebellion and soon after (in 1911) was retired. A year later, The Qing dynasty was ruined they became a Republic Nation.
How To Use Chopsticks
On the 15th, the Boxer troops and the Imperial Chinese troops continued to resist. However, there was no more notable seige fighting.
On the 17th, representatives of each of the foreign powers agreed that the only way to win was to completely crush the chinese forces completely.
On the 28th, the foreign troops marched through the innermost and most heavily defended section of the city of Peking—the Forbidden City.
The rebels still wished to fight, but were forced to surrender as not to lay damage to the Forbidden City, which was considered in a simular way as to a sacred site.
The Battle of Peking(cont)
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The president at the time was William McKinley
McKinley’s administration pursued an influential “Open Door” policy aimed as supporting American commercial interests in China and ensuring a strong U.S. position in world markets.
In 1900, McKinley backed up this policy by sending American troops to help put down the Boxer Rebellion.
The policy proposed to keep China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis, keeping any one power from total control of the country.
America at the Time
*The Motto of 9th U.S. Infantry(Keep Up The Fire!) was made because of the Boxer rebellion, where Colonel Emerson H. Liscum said those word, then died*
(For the Boxer Rebellion)