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Transcript of Cannabis
= generic term used to refer to psychoactive or medicinal preparations of the plant, Cannabis sativa Effects Classification intoxicant
depressant History Cannabis produces Cannabinoids responsible for "high" effect belongs to class of compounds called terpenoids = essential oils in plants Involved in formation of Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol 9 vitamins
odors THC Δ - tetrahydrocannabinol 9 Physical Properties: glassy solid when cold (pure form)
viscous/sticky when warm
low solubility in water
soluble in most organic solvents Responsible for most characteristic psychoactive effects of cannabis Mode of action of THC still not properly understood (-)-form is 10-15 times more potent that (+)-form Synthesis: geranyl pyrophosphate olivetolic acid cannabigerolic acid THC acid synthase Δ - tetrahydrocannabinolic acid 9 THC-COOH heat Δ - tetrahydrocannabinol 9 THC Mechanism: Marijuana Brownies heat marijuana in butter
this extracts THC-COOH molecules and converts them to THC Cannabis Effects (Acute) relaxation
increased appreciation of music
increased appetite Effects Vary with... dose
method of administration (smoked/ingested)
user's degree of experience
user's vulnerability to psychoactive effects of drug Effects Last... high begins 10-20 minutes after smoking
high lasts ~2 hours
THC is lipid soluble and ~30-40% is stored in the user's body fat
4-6 weeks until THC is undetectable in bloodstream Cannabis Effects in Chronic Users adverse impact on learning & memory can last for days or weeks
addiction (9% of marijuana users) Associations with Chronic Use increased rates of anxiety, depression, & schizophrenia Effects on Heart increase heart rate by 20-100% after smoking, lasts up to 3 hours Effects on Lungs marijuana smoke contains 50-70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke
Effects on Fertility
lowers testosterone levels
sperm count lowers
more likely to have interruptions in ovulation cycles
negative effect on fertility Females Males Medicine relieves pain
antitumor effects induction of cell death
inhibition of cell growth
inhibition of tumor angiogenesis
metastasis "Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death" - U.S. National Cancer Institute Questions Cannabidiol (CBD) found to be more effective than aspirin as an anti-inflammatory agent Synthesis: geranyl pyrophosphate olivetolic acid cannabigerolic acid cannabidiol
(CBD) CBD acid synthase Ratio of CBD & THC determines character and strength of the effects of cannabis What does THC stand for? What is the molecular structure of cannabidiol (CBD)? Questions What does THC stand for? What is the molecular structure of cannabidiol (CBD)? Δ - tetrahydrocannabinol 9 Bibliography "Erowid Cannabis (Marijuana) Vault." Erowid. 17 Apr 2011. <http://
www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis.shtml>. “Cannabis.” World Health Organization. <http://www.who.int/
substance_abuse/facts/cannabis/en/>. “Cannabis Effects.” TheGoodDrugsGuide. <http://
www.thegooddrugsguide.com/cannabis/effects.htm>. "Cannabis FAQ." Cannabis.com <http://cannabis.com/faqs/
about_cannabis_FAQ/index.html>. "Eliminating the THC, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Pathway in Cannabis sativa by
Mutagenesis of Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid Synthase.” Sveriges
Lantbruks University. 11 Jan 2001. <http://xray.bmc.uu.se/Courses/PT/
Project/Projects2000/Anders_final.html>. “History.” Hempmade. <http://www.hempmade.be/en/node/13>. Komp, Ellen. "Cannabis May Cure Cancer, But US Doctors Will Have A
Hard Time Finding Out." CannabisCulture. 5 Apr 2011. <http://
Time-Finding-Out>. "NIDA InfoFacts: Marijuana." National Institute on Drug Abuse.
<http://drugabuse.gov/infofacts/marijuana.html>. "Tetrahydrocannabinol - THC." Wyn Locke. <http://