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Exam Review I

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Olivia Talarico

on 10 June 2015

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Transcript of Exam Review I

Exam Review I
Chapter One: The Dynamic New Workplace
Business leadership in the 21st century
Ready to move on to Chapters 3 and 4
5. Diversity in the Workplace
What is WORKFORCE DIVERSITY?
Describes the composition of a workforce in terms of differences among its members. These differences include gender, age, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation

What is the benefit of "valuing diversity"
By
“valuing diversity”
organizations can tap a rich talent pool and help everyone work to their full potential

Many policies put into place to enusre that all employees are treated fairly, BUT still have
lingering inequality
in the workplace
Men vs. Women
Prejudice and discrimination
THE GLASS CEILING EFFECT
is an invisible barrier limiting career advancement of women and minorities
Subtle form of discrimination
Prevents women and minorities from rising above a certain level of organizational responsibility

6. Value People
People are IMPORTANT

People provide the company with
INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL
INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: the collective brainpower or shared knowledge of a workforce that can be used to create value
What people know, what they learn and what they do with it are the ultimate foundations of organizational performance
Organization combine the talents of many people to achieve unique and significant results

People are concerned with
WORK LIFE BALANCE


Respect
for employees is CENTRAL to organizational success
What is driving changes in Organizations?
The unrelenting demand for quality products and services

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT(TQM)
—managing with commitment to continuous improvement, product quality and customer satisfaction

Organizations that fail to deliver quality goods and services at reasonable prices will be left struggling in a highly competitive environment

Important for companies to build quality into all aspects of the operation
TOPIC ONE: Changes in the Business Industry:
1. SPEED
—everything is moving very fast and changing very quickly

2. We are living in a GLOBAL world
Globalization = the world wide interdependence of resource flows, producer markets and business competition

3. INNOVATION
is essential

4. Importance of
TECHNOLOGY

5. DIVERSITY
in the workplace
(see next slide)

6. VALUE PEOPLE
(see next slide)
Topic Two: Changing Nature of Organizations
Changing nature of organizations follow a similar pattern:
Emphasis on
human capital
—want experienced, knowledgeable and committed workers
Emphasis on
teamwork
—pools talent for creative problem solving
Embrace
technology
—seeing the new opportunities that technology has to offer
New workforce expectations
—a new generation brings to the workplace l
ess tolerance for hierarchy, more informality and more attention to performance merit than to status and seniority
Concern for
work-life balance

Focus on
speed

WHAT IS DRIVING THESE CHANGES in organizations?

Topic Three: Managers in the New Workplace
What is a manager?
—a person who supports and is responsible for the work of others

Levels of managers
Top manager
(guide the performance of the organization as a whole or of one of its major parts)
Middle Manager
(oversees the work of large departments or divisions)
Team Leader or Supervisor
(reports to the middle managers)

Changing nature of managerial work
Don’t hear the word manager as often—hear words like “team leader” or “coach”
Managers work is less directive and more supportive than in the past
Managers are now found working alongside those they supervise

THE UPSIDE DOWN PYRAMID STRUCTURE
illustrates how managers roles are changing
(see next slide)

What skills do managers need in this new environment?
(see next slide)

Upside Down Pyramid Structure:
Managers are at the bottom of the pyramid instead of at the top

Managers are not just there to give orders; they are there to mobilize and deliver the support others require to best serve customer needs
Managerial Skills
What skills do managers need in this new environment?

What is a skill?
—the ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance

We can classify the essential skills of managers into
THREE categories:
ONE: technical skills
—the ability to use expertise to perform a task with proficiency (What can you do for an employer)
TWO: human skills
—the ability to work well in cooperation with other people (How well do you work with others?)
An important component here is
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
—“the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively”
THREE: conceptual skills
—ability to think analytically and solve complex problems (Am I developing critical thinking and problem solving capabilities for long term career success?)
Topic Four: 21st Century Careers
The typical career of the 21st century
wont be uniformly full time and limited to a single large employer

It is more likely to unfold opportunistically and involve
several employment options over time


Not only must you be prepared to
change jobs and employers over time
, but your
skills must be portable
and
always of current value
in the employment markets
Skills must be carefully maintained and upgraded all the time in order to be seen as valuable to potential employers
Chapters 1 and 2
Chapter Two: Management - Past to Present
Introduces the historical roots of management
1. Bureaucratic Organization / Max Weber
Who is Max Weber?
A late 19th century German intellectual whose insights have had a major impact on the field of management and the sociology of organizations

What were his Concerns:

Weber was concerned that people were in positions of authority not because of their job-related capabilities, but because of their social standing or “privileged” status in German society

How did he suggest we fix the problem?
He believed that organizations largely failed to reach their performance potential because of the above concerns
• He believed that by creating something he called a
BUREAUCRACY
, the problems of the day would be solved
A Bureaucracy is a rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order and legitimate authority

The defining characteristics of Weber’s bureaucratic organization are as follows:
Clear division of labor
Clear hierarchy of authority
Formal rules and procedures
Impersonality
Careers based on merit

What are the Disadvantages of bureaucracies?
SLOW—excessive paperwork, rigidity, resistance to change

Why is Weber significant?
Current trends in management include many innovations that seek the same goals as Weber but with different approaches to how organizations can be structured

2. Behavioral Management Approaches
During the 1920s, an emphasis on the HUMAN SIDE of the workplace began to influence management thinking

a) HAWTHORN STUDY
(see next slide)

b) MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
(see next slide)

b) The Hawthorn Study
FIRST STUDY, 1924
Sought to study individual productivity at Hawthorn Works

The original “Hawthorn Study” sought to determine how economic incentives and the physical conditions of the workplace affected the output of the workers (LEVEL OF ILLUMINATION in the manufacturing facility)
It seemed reasonable to expect that better lighten would improve economic performance

HOWEVER, researchers concluded that unforeseen “PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS” somehow interfered with their illumination experiments

SECOND STUDY, 1927
Tried another set of experiments, where they began to research the effect of worker fatigue on output

What was done?
6 workers were isolated for intensive study in a special test room. They were given various rest pauses and workdays and workweeks of various lengths and production was regularly measured

What were the results?
BUT, once again, researchers failed to find any direct relationship between changes in physical working conditions and output
Instead, they found that
PRODUCTIVITY INCREASED REGARDLESS OF THE CHANGES MADE

What can we make of this? Why is this finding significant?
It was concluded that the new
“social setting”
created for workers in the test room accounted for the increased productivity
TWO FACTORS WERE SINGLED OUT AS HAVING SPECIAL IMPORTANCE:
ONE:
The GROUP ATMOSPHERE
—the workers shared pleasant relations with one another and wanted to do a good job
PARTICIPANT SUPERVISION
—test room workers were made to feel important, were given a lot of information, and were frequently asked for their opinions (this was not the case in their regular jobs elsewhere in the plant)

FINAL HAWTHORN STUDY
The final Hawthorn study was conducted in a bank writing room and centered on
the role of the working group
.

What did researchers discover?
A SURPRISE FINDING HERE WAS THAT PEOPLE WOULD RESTRICT THEIR OUTPUT TO AVOID THE DISPLEASURE OF THE GROUP, EVEN IF IT MEANT SACRIFICING PAY THAT COULD OTHERWISE BE EARNED BY INCREASING OUTPUT

THUS, it was recognized that groups can have strong NEGATIVE, as well as POSITIVE, influences on individual productivity

Lessons from the Hawthorn Study:
The Hawthorn Studies helped shift the attention of managers and management research away from the technical and structural concerns of the classical approach and
towards social and human concerns as keys to productivity

The Hawthorn Studies showed that
people’s feelings, attitudes and relationships with coworkers affected their work

The Hawthorn Studies recognized the
importance of group influences on individuals

The Hawthorn Studies contributed to the emergence of the
HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT
:
which suggests that managers using good human relations will achieve productivity
Belief that managers who used good human relations in the workplace would achieve productivity

b) Maslow's Theory of Human Needs
What is a need?
A Need is a physiological or psychological deficiency that a person wants to satisfy

Maslow identified FIVE LEVELS OF HUMAN NEEDS
Physiological
Safety
Social
Esteem
Self Actualization needs

According to Maslow:
A need at any level is only achieved when the next lower need is satisfied
People try to satisfy the needs in sequence—the progress step by step from the lowest level in the hierarchy to the highest

QUESTION: Why is this important for Business Managers to know about the hierarchy of needs?

Maslow’s theory implies that managers who help people satisfy their important needs at work will achieve productivity

Contingency Thinking
What is Contingency Thinking?
Contingency thinking tries to match managerial responses with the problems and opportunities specific to different settings particularly those posed by individual and environmental differences

Contingency thinking states that there is no one best way to manage all circumstances
Rather, contingency perspective tries to help managers understand
situational differences
and
respond
to them in ways appropriate to their
unique characteristics

What turns out to be the
“best” structure
in any given situation will depend on many factors

Overall, Contingency thinking recognizes that what is a good structure for one organization may not work well for another, and what works well at one time may not work as well in the future as circumstances change

Learning Organizations
The change and uncertainty in today’s environment have given rise to an emphasis on creating LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS

Learning Organizations are organizations that are continually learning and adapting themselves to changing circumstances

They are Continually changing and improving, using lessons learned from
experience
Full transcript