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Intercultural communication for international marketing and design
Transcript of Intercultural communication for international marketing and design
“Much of our difficulty with people in other countries stems from the fact that so little is known about cross-cultural communication.”
~ Edward T. Hall ~
"Specific" Cultures and "Diffused" Cultures
How separate we keep our private and working lives?
INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES VS
personal development & achievement
group goals prevail
the group is more important
success must be reached together
the single should never be perceived as better
In individualist societies, ties between individuals are loose, personal freedom is valued and individual decision-making is encouraged. On the contrary, in collectivist societies, in-group ties are strong, following societal norms is valued, and group decision-making is encouraged
DIRECT COMMUNICATION VS
efficient and faster
diffused cultures (harmony - don't want to offend)
LOW-CONTEXT CULTURES VS HIGH CONTEXT CULTURES
Low context cultures, such as Germany or the United States make much less extensive use of such similar experiences and expectations to communicate. Much more is explained through words or verbalization, instead of the context. In contrast, in a high context culture many more things are left unsaid, and it is expected that they are implicitly understood; in effect, the culture itself explains them, leaving outsiders at much more of a loss
communication is indirect
no need to specify everything
communication is direct
coding in verbal language
"Culture hides more than it reveals and strangely enough what it hides, it hides most effectively from it’s own participants. Years of study have convinced me that the real job is not to understand foreign culture but to understand our own" - Edward T. Hall
MONOCHRONIC CULTURES VS
Monochronic cultures like to do just one thing at a time. They value a certain orderliness and sense of there being an appropriate time and place for everything. They do not value interruption
Polychronic cultures like to do multiple things at the same time. A manager's office in a polychronic culture typically has an open door, a ringing phone and a meeting all going on at the same time.
Monochrons see time as being divided into fixed elements that can be organized, quantified and scheduled.
To a polychron, exact times are not really meaningful and, hence, are not all that important.
UNIVERSALISTIC CULTURES VS
DEFINITION: In universalistic cultures, the rules apply equally to everyone. In a more particularistic culture, human relationships are considered to be more important than rules.
if a person is in a difficult situation the law can be overlooked. The emphasis is on the spirit of the law rather than the letter of the law.
In universalistic cultures, the rules apply equally to everyone. If there are any exceptions, then the rules will become useless.
SPECIFIC CULTURES VS
DEFINITION: In what is called a specific culture, individuals are open to sharing a large public space with others and a small private space they guard closely and share with only friends and associates.
DEFINITION: A diffuse culture features similarly sized public and private spaces. Like most introverts, diffuse culture people guard both spaces carefully, because entry into public space also affords entry into private space.
What is more important?
Rules or relationships?
Do we display our emotions?
How separate can we keep our private
and working lives?
Do we do things one at a time
or several things at once?
DEFINITION: The way we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool, and helps set the stage for the communication process.
What are cultural clashes?
WHAT IS CULTURE?
HOW DOES IT INFLUENCE CROSS- CULTURAL MANAGEMENT, INTERNATIONAL MARKETING?
MASCULINITY VS FENINITY
Masculinity versus its opposite, femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders
High Masculinity: gender roles are very distinct. High competition, success, money, managers are authoritative. The man has to be strong, the woman kind. Conflict resolution happens thanks to quarrels, "fights".
High Femininity: gender roles are very interchangeable. Solidarity, quality of life, quality of work. Managers seek consensus. Humility and modesty are important in both genders. Conflict resolution happens thanks to negotiations. Ex: Norway
"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." Prof. Geert Hofstede, Emeritus Professor, Maastricht University.
Power distance Index measures the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society’s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders.
LOW POWER DISTANCE: flexible hierarchies. more egalitarian in power distribution (on merit). Leaders are democratic, participative. Employees expect to be consulted and participate. Inequalities between people are fought Ex: USA; Canada
HIGH POWER DISTANCE: structures are organized in hierarchies, employees expect to be told what to do, leaders are authoritative, inequalities are necessary and desired. Ex: Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea
A society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity". It reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. The uncertainty avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which a person in society feels uncomfortable with a sense of uncertainty and ambiguity, unstructured situations. Should we try to control the future or just let it happen?
Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.
Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles.