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Beef and Dairy Cattle
Transcript of Beef and Dairy Cattle
Breeds Of Cows
Breed Selection- Beef Cattle
Beef and Dairy cattle production are different in types and practices, but, both have strict guidelines and rules for sanitation that must be followed because the products are for human consumption.
Bovine- The term for cattle
Cow- The adult female cow
Bull- The adult male cow
Steer- A castrated male
Heifer- A young female who has not been bred yet
Springing Heifer- A young female who is pregnant with her first calf
Calf- A young cow
Breed Selection - Dairy cattle
They require the most nutrients and water.
The first 4 months of the gestation period are crucial for nutrition.
Cows need increased amounts of calcium and fat for energy to produce increased amounts of milk
Factors to be considered when feeding
Stage of lactating
Quality of milk
Cost of food
Nurse for the first 24 hours to receive colostrum which provides natural antibodies
Milk is collected from the mother cow and fed to the calf for the first three days.
Next 2-3 weeks claves are put on a milk replacer with increased amounts of fat and proteins to help calf grow
Put on solid food after that and starts eating roughage at week 5.
Dairy cattle standards are based on specific conformation requirement. Dairy cows should have an angular body shape that is rectangular in appearance. They lack muscle mass in comparison to beef cattle. Dairy cows should have well attached udders or mammary glands
Placed on good-quality grass and hay for 2-3 weeks
Around days 25-30 they are placed on grain at 4-7 pounds per day
During the last week the amount is increased to 7-14 pounds per day
Adults are feed high-quality grains or pellet-based diets high in protein and fat
2-3 pounds of grain per day, which is 2-3% of their body weight
Need to have free access to hay or a pasture and water
Kept with mothers until weaning
Begin with a starter food, then start a grain supplement
Typically fed in creep feeders- small food troughs that have bars
Cows scare easily and become difficult to work with once frightened. It maybe difficult to settle down the cow once spooked. Cattle are capable of kicking, stomping and trampling people. When cattle are around people or things that they are not used to they will become nervous.
signs of aggression in cattle include the following:
Direct starting with head lowered
Pawing at the ground with the front feet
Lowering and shaking the head
Short charging motions with the body
Tail swishing quickly
Equipment and Housing
Warm housing- heated barn or building during the winter that includes an insulated area with dairy stalls for each cow
Cold housing- a barn or building with no heat where the natural air circulates moisture. Usually a large open area where the herd is kept together.
Restraint, handling and basic training
Dairy cattle need a milking parlor or stalls. Stalls require a pipeline taking milk to and outside tank.
Multiple pastures are needed so the cattle can be rotated through them to allow grass to grow and decrease the risk of diseases. They should also have access to shelter in the pastures
Silos for food storage
Manure systems- Solid manure system where the waste is collected and hauled away every day.
Cattle that are shown or handled regularly for milking procedures are trained to follow routines and may be led with a halter and lead rope.
Cattle are often trained with the herd to move locations.
Training of cattle must be done in a calm manner.
Beef cattle are more difficult to restrain than dairy cattle mainly because they tend to be handled by people less than dairy cows.
Cattle are sometimes shown and must learn how to be handled with a halter and lead.
Tying cattle is typically done using a square knot.
Cattle can be handled by moving them place to place without the use of hands, this is called pushing.
Cattle can kick to the side, known as cow kicking. Cattle can also be restrained using a squeeze chute or stanching.
The tail switch restraint prevents cattle from moving and kicking while being handled.
Calving- The labor process of cows
Freshening- The labor process in dairy producing cows
Herd- A group of cattle
Freemartin- An adult cow that is sterile, Not able to produce
Polled- No horn growth
Forager- Animal that eats grass and pasture
Marbling- The appearance of fat within the meat
Cutability- Quality and quantity of meat from a beef animal
Dual Purpose Breed- A breed that is used for both meat and dairy
Grooming and Vaccinations
Cattle that are shown need to be groomed on a regular basis. Show cattle are usually handled at a young age and learn to be groomed and handled by people.
Cattle vaccination programs should be discussed with the herd veterinarian.
Young beef calves are typically vaccinated 14 to 21 days prior to weaning.
Dairy calves are typically vaccinated with boosters at 3-4 months of age and 5-6 months of age.
Basic Health Care
Common Diseases In Cows
There should be a herd health manager who records all health program and program and production information. The herd health manager will monitor the following.
Heat cycle maintenance
Body condition scoring
Fly control system
E-Coli- Found in Stomachs and Manure of cows
Brucellosis- Reproductive disease that causes abortion
Bovine Viral Diarrhea- No known treatment, Respiratory infection
Leptospirosis- Bacterial disease transmitted through Urine, bloody urine, respiratory problems
Mastitis- Inflammation of the mammary gland and can occur in female cows
Bloat- too much air ingested into the stomach
All individual cattle should have a type of permanent identification. Cattle ID methods include ear tag identification, neck tag identification, microchips, tattoos, and branding.
Occasionally, ear marks may be used where notches are made on the ear edges to identify cattle.
New technology is being used identification methods such as DNA testing and nose printing.
Dehorning is the removal of horns to prevent injury to humans and other cattle.
Castration of cattle is done surgical or banding method.
Parasites in cows
All Parasites affect Cattle and a dewormer and sanitation program should be clearly developed
Ticks, Flies, Mites, Lice, And all worms
Cows must be given dewormers to protect them from containing nasty
Common Surgical Procedures
Reproduction and breeding: Beef Cattle
The Cow-Cale System- This production is based on raising cattle for the best type. You can mix one or two breeds together but only the high quality cows should be breed for the best cows.
The Back-Grounding system- This system is used to raise cattle to market size for a profit. The ideal calf size is called a Feedlot Size. The calves are fed quality pasture, hay, and grain sources to increase their body mass. Once they meet feedlot size they are then sold for meat!
The Finishing System- This system produces a calf that grows through the entire adult stage. The cattle are then sold for profit as either a breeding animal or for the meat. most adult cows weigh between 1,100 and 1,300 pounds as adults and market weight.
Reproduction and Breeding of Dairy Cattle
Dairy cattle have to bred to produce milk. Milk production is typically stopped for 50-60 days and this is called the dry cow period.
Milk is produced in the udder or the bag like structure that contains four mammary glands or quarters that are sections of the glands that store the milk.
A purebred business consists of a breed of dairy cattle that is registered with a known pedigree
A commercial business consists of a grade type of dairy cow that is a mixed breed
Dairies are buildings where cattle are milked two to three times a day.
The milking process consists of disinfecting the udder of each cow within the herd.
The udder is cleansed and dried and then primed which means applying the milking machine devices to the udders to begin collecting milk.
The most common surgical procedure is castration. This is used for bulls who are not going to be used as breeding bulls, and allows for bulls to put on weight faster for meat production
Calves are castrated using an Elastrator band
Older bulls have to be sedated and standing castration is done.
The selection guidelines is a set of rules that state the standards of the type of cow and how it is chosen for a production program.
The pedigree or parents breeding lines should be evaluated for any genetic flaws
Cows should be sound and should have excellent conformation
When beef or dairy cattle are no longer producing a quality product they may be culled from the herd