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Transcript of Literature
What are the
Concentration camps were camps that the Jewish, Gypsie, or other people were forced to go to.The people in the concentration camps were to be tortured or forced to do work.The camps were built to fit many people in them. They also had many bunk beds to save room.
What were the Concentration camps meant for ?
Concentration camps were first meant for the Jewish, Gypsie, or other slave workers. In 1941 some of the camps(Eg. Auschwitz and Buchenwald) were used for killing the Jewish people. Some of the ways the Germans killed them were by poisonous gas and testing medical experiments on the people. Some of the experiments that the Germans tested on their prisoners were diseases and the cures for them.
Why were there concentration camps ?
Adolf Hitler believed that the German people were made up of a superior race known as the aryan race which consisted of people with blue eyes and blond hair. Any other "imperfect" people especially jews, gypsies and handicapped people were considered to be unfit to live and "must" be exterminated
to the Concentration camps ?
Jews, beggars, criminals, prostitutes, Gypsies, homosexuals, people who opposed Hitler, people who helped Jews or others.
Hitler believed that the influence of jews and asiatic people were dangerous and that they were known as subhuman considered too foreign to be connected with Aryan people. The use of concentration camps were to torture these "subhuman", undesirable people.
How were the people
transported from one place to another ?
Prisoners were transported in inhumane conditions by rail freight cars, in which many died before reaching their destination. The prisoners were confined to the boxcars for days or even weeks, with little or no food or water. Many died of dehydration in the intense heat of summer or froze to death in winter.
The Brick Barracks
The brick buildings were built in great haste, without suitable insulation, on marshy ground. More than 700 people were assigned to each barrack, although in practice the figure was sometimes higher. These barracks lacked any true heating; nor did they contain sanitary facilities.
The Brick Barracks
The Wooden Barracks
The interiors, designed to hold 52 horses, were partitioned into stalls. The stalls contained three-tier wooden bunks. Several hundred prisoners lived in each such barrack.
Feeding of Prisoners
Prisoners in the camp received meals three times a day: morning, noon, and evening. Factors influencing the nutritional value of the food included the official nutritional norms in the Nazi concentration camps. In practice, Auschwitz prisoners with less physically demanding labor assignments received approximately 1,300 calories per day, while those engaged in hard labor received approximately 1,700. After several weeks on such starvation rations in the camp, most prisoners began to experience organic deterioration that led to the so-called "Muzulman" state, extreme physical exhaustion that ended in death.
TYPES OF CAMPS
A concentration camp is a place where people are detained or confined without trial. Prisoners were kept in extremely harsh conditions and without any rights. concentration camps became a major way in which the Nazis imposed their control.
The first concentration camps in Germany were set up as detention centres to stop any opposition to the Nazis by so called ‘enemies of the state’.
However, after March 1938, when the Germans annexed Austria into German territory, many thousands of German Jews were arrested and detained in Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen concentration camps.
After Kristallnacht (the ‘Night of broken glass’) in November 1938, the Nazis and their supporters arrested many thousands of male Jews above the age of 14 years. They imprisoned them in camps for days or sometimes weeks. They were kept in poor conditions, given little food or water and subjected to brutal treatment and torture.
When the German army invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, the SS set up many concentration camps to house Polish political prisoners and many thousands of Polish Jews. Many of the inmates of these camps were subjected to increasingly poor conditions. In addition they were subjected to forced labour, the result of which was often death.
The Nazis set up transit camps in occupied lands. Examples of transit camps include Drancy in France,Mechelen in Belgium and Westerbork in the Netherlands. Jews were imprisoned in transit camps before being sent on to a concentration camp or deported to one of the six Nazi extermination camps in Poland.
Westerbork was one such transit camp located in the north east of the Netherlands. The camp had originally been set up in October 1939 by the Dutch government. It was a place to hold German Jews who had entered the Netherlands illegally. These people were fleeing Germany because of Nazi persecution.
The German army had invaded the Netherlands in May 1940, and very quickly had imposed their antisemitic policies. In late 1941 they decided that Westerbork was an ideal place in which to assemble the Jews of Holland before their deportation. The first Jews arrived at the camp on 14 July, and the first deportation to Auschwitz left the following day.
Selections for transit were a regular feature at Westerbork. Each Monday evening a train of about 20 cattle wagons would arrive at the camp. A list of one thousand people would be compiled by the Jewish council, which was made up of leaders of the community appointed by the Nazis and forced to carry out the Nazis’ orders. Early on the Tuesday morning those selected would assemble for deportation. After a roll call, they would enter the trains, at least 50 to each wagon, a bucket of water at one end and an empty one for use as a toilet at the other. The doors would close before the train departed for the long journey to the intended destination.
Between July 1942 and September 1944 almost 100,000 Jews would pass through Westerbork camp. They would leave on one of the 103 trains going to the Nazi concentration camp Bergen-Belsen, the extermination camps of Auschwitz-Birkenau and Sobibor. Fewer than 5,000 of them survived.
Like many of the camps, Westerbork also had a permanent population of workers. They would be doing metalwork or manual labour, or set to work serving the various areas of the camp.
It was not only concentration camp prisoners who were used for forced labour. By 1945 more than 14 million people were exploited in the network of hundreds of forced labour camps that stretched across the whole of Nazi-occupied Europe.
Many of the forced labour camps were satellite camps or sections of concentration camps. Auschwitz, in Poland, had over 40 such satellite camps.
Inmates of the labour camps were kept in terrible conditions, with the intention by the Nazis that death would be the result. ‘Extermination by labour’ was a policy under which the Nazis could supply the German war effort, while also continuing to carry out ‘the final solution’.
The Nazis established six extermination camps on Polish soil. These were Chelmno , Belzec ,Sobibor ,Treblinka, Majdanek and Auschwitz- Birkenau .
Chelmno was established to exterminate the Jews of the Lodz ghetto and the surrounding area, and 5,000 Roma. The facility contained three gas vans in which victims were murdered. Only two Jews survived the camp.
After the Conference of 1942, the Germans established death camps at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka. They were set up near railway lines to make transportation of the victims easy. In these camps, the victims were sent directly to the gas chambers
A concentration camp to house Soviet prisoners of war and Poles had been established at Majdanek, In the spring of 1942 gas chambers and crematoria were added, turning Majdanek into an extermination camp that would murder 78,000 people.
Auschwitz-Birkenau was a massive concentration, there were forced labour and extermination camp at the centre of a network of more than 40 satellite camps. Up to 80 per cent of those Jews transported to Auschwitz-Birkenau were selected for immediate death.
Those who were selected for work were set on a whole range of tasks, which included sorting and processing the possessions of everyone who arrived at the camp and heavy manual work.
Some Jewish prisoners were put into units called Sonderkommandos, whose role was to work in the gas chambers and crematorium. They were kept apart from the rest of the camp prisoners, but were also sent to their deaths in the gas chambers after a few weeks or months of work.
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR ATTENTION !
A video on the Auschwitz - Nazi German Concentration Camp
The entrance to a camp
The Crematorium in the camp
The People in the camp
A view of the camp
Group 8 :Bryan (5)
from Google Images