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Africa and the Cold War

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Samone B

on 10 March 2013

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Transcript of Africa and the Cold War

Libya Soviet Union United States Background Information -Never a homogeneous country
-Divided by former colonial masters for economic reasons
-North and South Nigeria combined in 1941 to make running the country easier
-Had few things in common, problems arose
-Politics based on ethnicities rather than national interests
-Nigeria gained independence in 1960, remained one country
Ethnic groups Igbo and Yoruba fought for this, Hausa opposed
-Battles over political and military dominance increased Ethnic Groups -Contained many groups
-Three main ones:
-Yoruba in the southwest
Series of monarchs for Oba
Less autocratic
Allowed upward mobility
-Igbo in the southeast
Autonomous and democratic communities
Monarchs in ancient cities
Decisions made by general assembly in which anyone can participate
-Hausa-Fulani in the north
Operates on mostly feudal system
Conservative Islamic rule
Hierarchy of Emirs under a Sultan
Sultan seen as ultimate political and religious authority Military Coup Relations with the West ~The whole government had been anti-communist
~Supported by Angola and Mozambique until 1975, and discreetly supported by Western Europe and the US
~It provided the West with important commodities (ex: gold, coal) and an importance for their products. (At this time the apartheid was going on)
~ Of strategic importance during the Cold War in the fight against communism; its propaganda focused on the Western fear of communism
~Relations stayed the same after the release of Apartheid -Caused by several things:
Election crisis in West Nigeria
Widespread striking
Issues between ethnic groups
Controversial federal election
Disputed national consensus
-Began on January 15, 1966
-Said to have been started by the Igbos
-Led by Major Kaduna Nzeogwu as well as other army officers
He later executed the prime minister (Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa) and premier (Sir Ahmadu Bello) of the north
The president (Sir Nnamdi Azikiwe), an Igbo, was not in the country during the coup, and didn't return until it was over South Africa BJ Vorster and his
policies ~ Came into power as Prime Minister of the Nationalist Party in 1966 until 1978.
~When in office he aimed to:
-improve the country's image overseas
-improve foreign ties (including Western
communications)
-relieve the country from its isolation
~His policies were some of the most racist
and discriminatory.
-Sports policy
-Outward Looking policy
-Apartheid (most famous)
~He pushed for economic ties with other African
countries, mainly wanting to with the more
Conservative countries. -Known as "The Coup of the Five Majors"
-Resulted in General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, an Igbo, taking power of the Nigerian military and as president
-Eliminated democratic institutions for military rule
-Believed that he must be strict to regain power before going back to democracy
-Question over who was responsible for the coup (Igbos or Northern Hausa-Fulani) The Counter Coup -Caused by:
Opposition against Ironsi
Southern media humiliation against north
-Occurred on July 29, 1966
-Led by northern officers
Important players include Murtala Mohammed, Joe Akahan and T. Y. Danjuma
-Ironsi overthrown and killed
-Power struggle between Mohammed and Lieutenant-Colonel Yakubu Gowon for being Supreme Commander of the army
-Gowon was chosen for this job
-Ethnic tensions continued to increase Southeast Separation -On May 30, 1967, the Igbo southeast, led by Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, decided to break free from the north
-Claimed that it was unstable due to murders and election frauds
-Became the Republic of Biafra, though not very recognized
-Didn't have weapons, but insisted on separating The Civil War -Several peace treaties, notably the Aburi Accords, where broken, and war broke out
-The east (Igbos) was badly prepared for war, and had less weapons and soldiers than the Nigerians
-The Nigerian government entered north Biafra in the First Infantry Division
-Army separated, attacked and captured different cities (Garkem on July 12, Nsukka on July 14)
-On August 9, the Biafrans crossed the border into the Nigerian capital of Lagos
-They captured the mid-west easily
-Gowon and General Murtal Mohammed got rid of the Biafrans in the mid-west and protected the west in the Second Infantry Division
-The Biafrans, however, succeeded in separating the army
-The Nigerian army went on to attack the Biafran south in the Third Infantry Division Somalia Nigeria Foreign Support A bit of background on Somalia In the year of 1969, Somalia was marred by the overtaking of the parliamentary democracy by military coup leader, General Siad Barre.

Under Siad Barre, political parties were banned and the national assembly was dismantled. Too much attention was payed to Somala's economic activity and political control under Mogadishu's reign while the well-being of the reminder of the country was ignored.
One of the main reasons the U.S and USSR even bothered the Somalia was due to it's strategic location along Persian oil routes. Jimmy Carter's National Security Advisor actually went as far as to say that "SALT lies buried in the sands of Ogaden," therefore signifying the "death" of the detente. -The Nigeria government was funded by:
The Soviet Union
The UK
-The Biafrans were funded by:
Israel
France
Canada
-The United States claimed to be neutral, but the Red Cross gave support to the Biafrans Apartheid The Soviet Union began aiding Somalia
in the 1970s. In order to gain Soviet
approval, Barre implemented Socialism.
This tactic gained him the military support he needed in order to achieve his goal of
ridding Somalia of Ethiopians Mozambique Barre declared Mengistu Haile Mariam a major political opposition almost immediately after Mengistu was claimed head of the Ethiopian state in February 11, 1977.
Barre took advantage of Ethiopia's distractions with internal conflict to attack Ethiopians in Ogaden.
Barre's army nearly doubled Mariams, with an advantage of 50,000 men against 24,000.
After two long months of fighting, the expected result came about, and Barre controlled roughly of 90 percent of Ogaden.
However, the tides of the war took a drastic change when the Soviet Union abandoned Somalia and appealed to Ethiopia instead. Ogaden war (p. 1) militia groups organized under the title of Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO)
FRELIMO established a Marxist government in the newly independent nation of Mozambique
the USSR and China provided FRELIMO with most of its military resources
Communist countries were the nation's greatest source of international aid and primary trading partners
FRELIMO received support from Tanzania, Algeria, Ghana, Zambia, Libya, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Cuba, China, Soviet Union, Somalia, Egypt Ogaden War (p. 2) Under Soviet support, Ethiopians had regrouped with over 50,000 men who were backed by the superpower's artillery and armor.
Cuba sent in an army of 11,000 men to assist as well.
Soviets gradually sent in over 1,500 advisers.
Ethiopian and Cuban forces sent in a two-stage counter attack in 1978, and a week later, Somali forces were recalled from Ethiopia. FRELIMO ~A policy that's main objective was racial segregation.
~The State Department Officer who was responsible
for this policy was Chester A. Crocket.
~The main part of apartheid was the Population
Registration Act of 1950. This act divided South
Africans into three classifications:
-White
-Bantu (all nonwhite South Africans)
-Colored (anyone of mixed race)
-Asian (including Indians and Pakistanis)
*Later added
~Under this policy nonwhite South Africans:
-had to use different institutions and buildings than
the white South Africans
-had little to no contact with the white South
Africans
-were forced into separate neighborhoods than the
white South Africans
-were not allowed to marry white South Africans
-had to carry passes
~It had officially ended in 1994, but Parliament had a
vote to abolish the framework for this policy in 1991.
~In 1986 the US had joined in on the international community in passing the USCAA (United States Comprehensive Anti-apartheid Act).
-This led to a loss in American business in South
Africa. Ethiopia In the beginning... It was originally the United States that supported Haile Selassie, emperor of Ethiopia from the beginning of World War Two until 1974. Haile Selassie ensured the United States access to the important spy base at Kagnew, which the U.S. used as a method to maintain critical military contact.
Under U.S. backing, Ethiopia developed one of the largest armies in Africa. A bit of background on Haile Selassie Opinions on him tend to vary. Some say that he was a benevolent king that ruled peacefully and generously, having created numerous schools, hospitals, banks, and airplanes.
Others, such as the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) claims that the Emperor was a tyrant who oppressed and exploited the masses.
One of Selassie's quotes include: "If we could save the peasants only by confessing our failure to the world, it is better that they die. American support Ethiopia and the United States developed strong relations, and in the late 1960s, Ethiopia had become home to the United States' largest economies, military assistance programs, and land embassy in Sub Saharan Africa.
When Ethiopia was threatened by Somalians, who wanted to reclaim their land, or Eritrea, who wanted to separate from the Ethiopian state, the United States strongly supported Haile Selassie. "It's not me, it's you." A man known by the name of Mengistu took over the ruling military committee. It was only a matter of time before Haile Selassie was overthrown by the army in the year of 1974.
The United States initially tried to maintain economic, political, military relations with the new regime, but to no avail. The U.S. was unable to provide all of the military assistance desired from Mengistu, so Ethiopia turned to the Soviet Union instead. The United States searched for a new ally in the Horn of Africa Eritrea was busy engaging in war with Ethiopia. Dibouti didn't even become an independent state until 1977, and it was not even considered important by American standards.
In 1977, Somalia invaded the Somali-inhabited portions of Ethiopia.
(side note) The US didn't provide Somalia with much aid during the Ogaden war, but it did initiate the delivery of military aid not long thereafter. Soviet Union gave military support to the governments of Mozambique
The Soviet Union also offered a number of educational scholarships to young people, mainly in the former English and Portuguese territories.
If the West offered assistance, there would have been much less need to look to Moscow. M.P.L.A. Popular Movement from the Liberation of Angola National Union for the Total Independence of Angola U.N.I.T.A The Congo Background - In the 1950's and 60's three rival guerrilla groups are formed to fight for Angola's independence

- 1961 a lot of rebellions and demonstrations by the workers were occurring, these laborers were being forced to work in plantations
~ the ongoing protests plunged the country into a state of chaos Help from the soviets -1970's through all this chaos the guerrilla groups are actively engaging in campaign's of violence against the colonial power, while equally fighting amongst themselves - In a weak attempt to appease to the revolting people of Africa the government initiated a series of reforms -1974 in Portugal, a coup is initiating and the Portuguese are being overwhelmed
Majority of the power was held by the Belgian Minister of Colonial Affairs, assisted by a Colonial Council.
From 1886 until 1926, the Governor-general and his administration were posted in Boma, near the Congo River estuary. From 1926, the colonial capital moved to Léopoldville.
The Belgian Congo was involved in the two world wars. During WWI, there was a stand-off between the Force Publique and the German colonial army in German East-Africa (Tanganyika). During WWII, the Belgian Congo was a crucial source of income for the Belgian government in exile in London. - Portugal loses control and leaves the country -The once Portuguese colonies are quickly gaining independence -The once Portuguese colonies are quickly gaining independence Mozambican Civil War
began in1977 The ruling party, Front for Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO), fought against the Rhodesian and South African funded Mozambique Resistance Movement (RENAMO) in 1977
FRELIMO was forced to defend itself against guerrilla methods
FRELIMO had to defend vast areas and hundreds of locations, while RENAMO operated out of a few remote areas carrying out raids against towns and inportant infrastructure
About one million people died in fighting and from starvation,
Fighting ended in 1992 and the country's first multi-party elections were held in 1994 Background!! - Portugal's colonial claim to the region was recognized by the other European powers during the 1880s, and the boundaries of Portuguese Angola are agreed by negotiation in Europe in 1891

- African rulers in the region put up a fight for their independence, but one by one the local kingdoms were taken over and abolished , by 1920's almost of all Angola was under Portuguese control The Congo Crisis The country of Congo declared its independence on June 30th 1960. The prime minister was Patrice Lumumba, and the president was Joseph Kasavubu.
Disobedience led by the army against remaining white officers, caused the government to have little to no power.
The 100,000 Belgians occupying Congo feared for their safety.
The Belgian government dispatched troops to protect those Belgian citizens (this was illegal because they were not invited by Congo). The Congo and the Cold war Katango, in Southern Congo, declared independence.
Lumumba reached out to the United Nations for help
The security council deployed 10,000 soldiers to aid Congo.Their mission:
1. Restore law and order
2.Stop other countries from getting
involved in the crisis.
3. Assist in building the nation's
economy.

The United Nations was asked by Lumumba to use ONUC to attack Katanga. The United Nations refused to reunite the two.
The Congo turned to the Soviet Union for help. The Soviet Union at the time was trying to get a foot in the door in Africa, so the happily accepted.
The USSR equipped Lumumba's forces with Soviet transport planes.
In 1960, Lumumba's forces attacked Katanga but the operation was a failure. Angola Civil War - established in 1966, it was led by Jonas Savimbi

- anti-communist guerilla warfare movement

- received support from South Africa and the United States

- Viewed by the people as an anti-communist alternative to the MPLA Relations with the US ~Training
-Base Agreement of 1954-1970. This agreement
was created to let the US use Libyan bases and
military facilities for training. The main base
used was the Wheelus Air Force Base, east of
Tripoli.
~Location
-Other than the uses of the base, its location was
an important aspect. Its location provided
advantages for the US when the country had
over 50 contingency plans involving the Middle
East and other countries in Africa. Wheelus Air Force Base Libya's change in direction RENAMO The Mozambican National Resistance RENAMO founed in 1975
RENAMO was formed by the Rhodesian Special Branch who worked together with General Peter Walls a Rhodesian army commander
André Matsangaissa, an ex-FRELIMO army commander was its first official leader
created following Mozambique's independence as an anti-Communist political organization
During the Mozambican Civil War of the 1980s, RENAMO received support from South Africa ~In 1969 King Idris, who was pro-American, had been
overthrown by Mu'ammar Gaddafi.
~He ruled through what he called the Revolutionary
Command Council(RCC); one of the first actions of the
RCC was to close down all American and British
military bases located in Libya. He then encouraged
military relations with the Soviet Union.
~Around this time Gaddafi turned to the country's oil industry. It was doing well, Libya supplied over 30% of Europe's oil imports.
~In response to the break in ties between Libya and the
United States ~In 1969 King Idris, who supported the West, had been
overthrown by Mu'ammar Gaddafi.
~He ruled through what he called the Revolutionary
Command Council(RCC); one of the first actions of the
RCC was to close down all American and British
military bases located in Libya.
-He then encouraged military relations with the
Soviet Union.
~Around this time Gaddafi turned to the country's oil industry. It was doing well, Libya supplied over 30% of Europe's oil imports.
~As a result of betrayal towards the US, President Reagen banned all oil with Libya trade to and from the
United States in 1982. Under Portuguese Control Until 1975, Mozambique was a Portuguese colony.
militia groups loosely organized under the title of The Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) conducted guerrilla attacks on the Portuguese
Capitalism was associated with western nations so being under western rule the people did not want a capitalist style of government Soviet Relations AFRICA PROJECT By: Samone Buchanan, Pernoner Foulkes, Abrielle Otero, John Serrano, Luana Silva, and Nathalia Edwards AICE International History
Period 5
Mr. Katz
2/25/13 Sudan South African
Border War ~This war had been fought from 1966 to 1989 between
South African settlers and the Angolan people.
-Angolans= Soviet-backed
-South Africans/UNITA= United States-backed
~UNITA stands for National Union for Total
Independence of Angola. The acronym is a bit off
because the name was translated from Portuguese.
-Angola was a former Portuguese colony.
~The was was fought in Angola and along the border
between former South-West Africa(currently Namibia)
and Angola.
~The South Africans invaded Angola in an attempt to
spread Apartheid to other countries.
~End of war: realization that the Soviet-backed
Angolans would never win a battle against the South
Africans without a high price
-The Angolans were too weak after the collapse of the
Soviet Union
1956-a guerilla independence movement the MPLA (the peoples movement for the liberation of Angola was created
1950's and 1961- nationalist's movement and guerilla war begins
1961- forced labor abolished after violent revolts on coffee plantations and 50,000 people killed and independence bolstered
1966- The UNITA created
1974- revolution in Portugal and colonial empire collapses
1976- MPLA gains the upper hand
1979- the leader Agistinho Neto dies and Jose Eduardo Dos Santos takes over as president
1987- South African forces enter Luanda to help aid the UNITA forces
1988- South Africa agrees to Namibian Independence with the removal of cuban troops
1989- Dos Santos and and UNITA leader jonas Savimbi both agree on a cease-fire, but it "cancels" soon after and the guerilla war continues
May 1991- Savimbi and Dos Santos agree on a peace treaty and a multiparty constitution in Lisbon
1992- presendential and parliament polls are done and Dos Santos wins more votes then Savimbi who denies and the guerilla war is continued
1993- Un poses sections on UNITA ,the U.S. now aknowledges MPLA
1994 - UNITA signs Usaka protocol Peace accord
1996- Dos Santos and Savimbi meet agreeing on a comitment of peace when the first of the UN. peace keepers arrive
1996- they both agree on the unity of the government and join forces
1997-unified government inagurated and Savimbi didnt go to the Inaguration setting a lot of tension
1998- full scale fighting resumes and thousands are killed in the next four years
1999 U.Nn ends peace keeping mission
2002 Savimbi killed by government troops
2012- MPLA still in power and more terms of presidency for Jose Dos Santos -Founded in 1956

-merged from two nationalists organizations

- founded by Agistinho Neto

-received support from USSR and Cuba

-later lead by Eduardo Dos Santos Actions under Gaddafi's reign ~In 1971 he creates what is called the Federation
of Arab Republics(FAR), which encompasses
Libya, Egypt, and Syria. This idea was approved
but never took off.
~In 1973 he started a cultural revolution. The
main action of this revolution was to install
"peoples committees" in local institutions.
~In 1977 he declared a peoples revolution. The
main action of this revolution was to install
"revolutionary committees" which eventually
caused more harm than intended. He also
changed the country's name to the Great
Socialist People's Arab Jamahiriyah. relation with the US US interest in the Sudan rested on ending the country's war in Darfur
US-Sudan relations have been up and down because of the Cold War, Arab-Israeli conflict, the war in southern Sudan, support for international terrorism, human rights abuses, and genocide in Darfur
Sudan broke diplomatic relations with the U.S. in 1967 after the start of the Arab-Israeli War
Relations were re-established in 1972 when the Sudanese Communist Party attempted to overthrow President Nimeiri, and he suspected Soviet involvement first civil war United States and Israel supported southern Sudanese secessionists in hopes of overthrowing an African government considered an enemy of Israel and a friend of the Soviet Union
from 1955 to 1972 between northern Sudan and southern Sudan that demanded representation and more religious freedoms half a million people died during the war.
After the February 1953 agreement by the United Kingdom and Egypt to grant independence to Sudan, the internal tensions over the relationship of north to south were heightened.
Soviet Union had given 100 million-$150 million arms agreement with Sudan in August 1968, which included T-55 tanks, armored personnel carriers, and aircraft -After 1968, the Nigerians were unable to make further advancements into Biafra
-The Nigerians eventually put a blockade on Biafra, causing the Biafran airlift
- In September 1968, the Nigerian army planned the final offensive
-This failed, and Biafrans gained an advantage throughout 1969
-On December 23, 1969, the Nigerian army used British support to invade Biafra
-Ojukwu, the leader, soon fled and surrendered to Gowon The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army.
About two million people have died as a result of war, famine, and deceased caused by the conflict.
The United States began selling Sudan euipment around 1976, hoping to counteract Soviet support of Marxist Ethiopians and Libyans
After the start of the second civil war, American assistance dropped, and was eventually canceled in 1987 Second Civil War Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba President Joseph Kasavubu General Siad Barre original FRELIMO flag Mengistu Haile Mariam Francisco da Costa Gomes Haile Selassie
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