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Extraction of Bio Ethanol from Pre-treated Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

By: Jose Alessandro Dangazo Machacon & John Alex Coronel Ocay
by

John Coronel Ocay

on 10 March 2012

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Transcript of Extraction of Bio Ethanol from Pre-treated Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

Extraction of Bio Ethanol
from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Peelings by: Jose Alessandro D. Machacon
John Alex C. Ocay The world is currently undergoing an oil crisis. Due to our continuous annual oil consumption, our reserves are quickly being depleted, with scientists predicting that at our current rate of consumption, in just 40 years, our entire fossil fuel supply will run out completely. We’ve been increasing the rate of usage of this oil even if it is a finite resource. Also, burning of this oil will increase the traces of gas concentration in the atmosphere adding to the severing global warming. Why this study?  The pineapple (Ananas comosus) plant thriving in a tropical climate is one of the abundant natural products of the Philippines. On average, 435,000 metric tons of pineapples are produced annually in the Philippines, which is one of the country’s leading commercial fruit products. However, there are a lot of unused excess parts of the pineapple, notably the peelings, which are considered as waste products and contribute to the country’s garbage problem and to the land pollution. This study looks into the feasibility of producing greater yield of ethanol from pineapple peelings through pre-treatment methods and acid hydrolysis. Investigation of Steam Explosion and Boiling of samples will also be compared for ethanol production. This study of producing bio ethanol from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) peelings will be conducted in order to make use of the 50% organic waste products. It aims to make use of pineapple peelings as a raw material to produce bio ethanol thus, it helps reduce the total waste count of the Philippines and the increasing global oil crisis. Statement of the Problem  Main Problem Sub Problems Operational Definition of Terms  Research Design The research was performed by covering two set-ups: the sample pre-treated through steam explosion and through boiling. Different concentrations of H2SO4 were tested for Acid Hydrolysis for the production of bio ethanol.   bio ethanol – converted from pineapple peelings for
fuel production
steam explosion – a pre-treatment method aimed at
removing the lignin from the biomass
and liberates the cellulose and other
polymeric carbohydrates (such as
hemicellulose) for subsequent
saccharification.
pre-treatment – a method to get rid of lignin which
traps the cellulase of the sample
yeast – helps in bio ethanol production during
fermentation 
Acid Hydrolysis – a method for bio ethanol production
using sulfuric acid as a catalyst
cellulase – an enzyme that breaks down cellulose into
sugars Materials
18 Petri Dishes
knife
18 erlenmeyer flasks
foil
filter paper
at least 360 g of pineapple peelings Equipments
Steam Explosion Machine
Electric Stove
Fractional Distillation Equipment
Analytical Balance The researchers would like to convert and determine the bio ethanol content of pre-treated pineapple peelings. In doing so, the following questions will be answered:  What is the average bio ethanol production from pre-treated pineapple peelings?  1. Production of bio ethanol from pineapple peelings will be conducted to determine the peeling's potential as a bio ethanol source.

2. The peel samples will be collected from Pala-o Supermarket, Iligan City and will be forwarded to the Bioprocess Technology Laboratory of School of Engineering Technology, MSU-IIT.

3. The Peel Samples will be subjected to steam explosion, boiling pre-treatments and fermentation. Scope and Delimitatons Sample Preparation Pre-treatment Methods Acid Hydrolysis Fermentation Ethanol Production General Procedure 1. What percentage of concentration of H2SO4 will produce more bio ethanol in acid hydrolysis from steam explosion?
2. What percentage of concentration of H2SO4 will produce more bio ethanol in acid hydrolysis from boiling?
3. Which of the two pre-treatment processes yield higher amount of bio ethanol? Results and
Discussions

After the acid hydrolysis and fermentation on the pineapple peelings, 3% H2SO4 yielded the most bio ethanol in boiling method with an average mean of 1.0411 grams from the three trials.
Concentration of H2SO4 Ave. Mean of the Amount of Bio Ethanol produced
1 % 1.0107 g

2 % 1.0339 g

3 % 1.0411 g
Concentration of H2SO4
1 % 1.0097 g

2 % 1.0416 g

3 % 1.074 g

After the acid hydrolysis and fermentation on the pineapple peelings, 3% H2SO4 yielded the most bio ethanol in steam explosion method with an average mean of 1.074 grams from the three trials.
After three days of fermentation, the samples underwent fractional distillation. In this procedure each sample is placed over a heated electric stove and brought to boil but the temperature is assured to be just around 80 degrees Celsius enough to let ethanol evaporate and condense in the equipment. The bio ethanol produced was collected using test tubes and were transferred to vials to measure them using an analytical balance.

In the graph above, the blue bar represents the amount of bio ethanol produced in grams from different concentrations of H2SO4 in acid hydrolysis through boiling method while the pink bar represents the amount of bio ethanol produced through steam explosion method. In 1% H2SO4 there is just a minimal amount of difference in the bio ethanol produced between boiling method and steam explosion method unlike in the 2% and 3%. The volume of the bio ethanol is proportional with its mass. Conclusion
These are the conclusions generated after performing pre-treatment methods, acid hydrolysis and fermentation on the pineapple peelings:

1.) The average mass of the bio ethanol produced from pre-treated pineapple peelings is 1.0352 grams.
2.) 3% H2SO4 yielded more bio ethanol in acid hydrolysis from steam explosion with an average mean of 1.074 grams.
3.) 3% H2SO4 yielded more bio ethanol in acid hydrolysis from boiling with an average mean of 1.0411 grams.
4.) The Steam explosion method yielded a higher amount of bio ethanol with an average mean of 1.0418 grams from the three concentrations of H2SO4. Recommendations
The following recommendations are offered for future researchers who wish to conduct a similar study:

1.) The researchers recommend purifying the ethanol produced.
2.) The researchers recommend identifying or studying about the usage of lignin.
3.) The researchers recommend calculating the sugar content that was lost during the treatment method.

4.) The researchers recommend using another chemical for pre-treatment method.
5.) The researchers recommend using other concentrations of H2SO4 for acid hydrolysis.

Sample Preparation Pre-treatment Methods Acid Hydrolysis Fermentation Ethanol Production Ave. Mean of the Amount of Bio Ethanol produced
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