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Transcript of Audio-Lingual Method
Method Entry of the U.S. into World War II Historical Background "Army Method" based on structural view of language & behavioral psychology Theory of Language Structural view of language Behaviorist Theory of Language Learning Behaviorism (classical & operant) focus on oral skills (listening and speaking) The ALM in the Classroom Conditioning: helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping & reinforcement Advantages achieving of good pronunciation
> everyone has to speak
often immediate results
teacher has control -
students know what to expect Disadvantages Memorization & repetition exclude context knowledge
Errors seen as bad thing > negative feedback
Difficulties with transferring to "real" conversation
Focus on class as whole Behaviorist Learning Stimulus Organism Response/
Behavior Reinforcement No/ negative
Reinforcement increases likelihood that behavior will occur again & become a habit what is taught extrinsic approval or praise of the teacher/students
intrinsic self-satisfaction language learner verbal behavior behavior not likely to occur again Language Learning = process of mechanical habit formation
Language mastery = acquiring a set of appropriate language stimulus-response chain memorization through repetition dominant
in charge of the choice of dialogues/drills/pace
monitors student's performance Teachers dialogue with key structures focus on grammatical structures pattern drills practicing and using them in context Important Characteristics Sources http://www.ionpsych.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/listening_speaking_and_literacy_3851.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_isqE7_kKGJQ/TDZMJI9rIQI/AAAAAAAAAHU/MUA0M3ON-og/s1600/marauz_good_listening.jpg Repetitive drills
Memorization of phrases
Minimal grammatical explanations(!)
Vocabulary in context
Focus on pronunciation
Lesson in target language/L2
"Natural Order": Listening & Speaking put above Reading &Writing Overview 1. Historical Background 2. Theory of Language 3. ALM in the Classroom 4. Characteristics 5. Advantages/Disadvantages 6. Sources (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr Morphology Syntax Phonemes Phonology -> military personnel for translators, interpreters etc. needed -> development of new language program to achieve oral proficiency objective: quick development of conversational proficiency in various languages Language = Speech illustration of key structures with the use of dialogues and drills passive/reactive by responding to stimuli (Behaviorism)
not intended to cause interaction
(chance of making mistakes) Students grammar rules are not given explicitly; grammar is learnt inductively prevents formation of 'bad habit' (errors) students should 'overlearn' Mechanical Drills
these include repetition Different Kinds of Pattern Drills Meaningful Drills
control over the response, but requires correct understanding Communicative Drills
type of response is controlled, yet student can insert own answer Structural view of language
Habit-Formation Engl.6240 Approaches to Teaching English as a Second Language -The Audiolingual Method. Auburn U, Oct 15th 2012. <http://www.auburn.edu/~nunnath/engl6240/alm.html> Richards, J C& Rodgers, T S (2001) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP. Pictures Example: I’m going to the cinema/ supermarket/ school/ theatre Example: The teacher reads a sentence:
I’m hot./ I’m cold./ I’m thirsty./ I’m hungry.
The student chooses a response:
I’ll get you something to eat. / I’ll turn on the air conditioning./ I’ll get you something to drink./ I’ll turn on the heater. Example: The teacher says:
What did you have for breakfast?/ When did you get up on Sunday?
The student completes:I got up at …/ I had… ALM Today technique: "informant method" (Bloomfield)
native speaker (informant) as source for imitation Army Method considerable attention to an intensive-oral based approach emergence of the US as international power flourishing of Structural Linguists application of principles of structural linguists to language teaching intensive oral drills with grammar as the starting point Oral-Approach, Aural-Oral Approach, Structural Approach throughout 50s Behaviorist Psychology + Audiolingualism as reaction to traditional grammar mid-50s language= system of structurally related items/elements each element produced by certain rules http://eprints.ums.ac.id/1269/1/2._NORWANTO.pdf linguistic/lexical syllabus no need for intensive preparation Could you imagine using ALM in class?
Why? How? Literature Thank you for your attention :)