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Communication: An Art or A Science?

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Sehrish F. Kazim

on 9 September 2018

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Transcript of Communication: An Art or A Science?

Components/Elements of Communication
What is Communication?
Verbal Communication
Non-verbal Communication
Seven Cs of Effective Communication
Introduction to Communication Skills
Types of Communication
Barriers in Communication
Communication: An Art or A Science?
Facilitator: Sehrish F. Kazim
Bahria University (Karachi Campus)

Is communication an Art or a Science? Comment
"The act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to exchange information or to express ideas, feelings, thoughts to another person".
Source: Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary
the situation in which communication takes place.
taking into consideration the environment of the sender and receiver, the culture of the organization, and factors in the relationship of the sender and receiver
helps in setting the tone and style
of communication
An example!
Sender (Encoder)
Message Sender: source of communication
An effective sender knows:
why he is handing down the message
what he expects after the message has been delivered
the capabilities of the receiver to understand, in terms of language, interest etc.
the information that you want to send out
without this, the communication will lose its meaning
created by the sender to bring facts, opinions, or any information to the receiver
Sender must watch out for:
- written / verbal
* use of words
* language
* meaning
Sender must watch out for:
- Non-verbal
* use of body language
* facial expressions
* capabilities and professional competencies of the receiver
The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood.
In simple words, context is
means used to transfer information from the sender to the receiver
appropriate medium is important for the receiver to understand the message clearly
Receiver (Decoder)
person who will get the message and will eventually give feedback
To receive the message clearly, the sender and receiver must have:
same language ability
cultural background
a crucial element of situation
given by the receiver to the sender to check if the message has been received/interpreted clearly
1. Verbal Communication
2. Non-verbal Communication
the use of sounds and language to relay a message
serves as a tool to express desires, ideas, concepts
Types of VC (Spoken)
1. Interpersonal Communication
2. Public Speaking
According to Robert M. Krauss, professor of psychology at Columbia University, signs and symbols make up verbal communication.
Words act as symbols and signs are secondary product of underlying message and include tone of voice, facial expressions etc.
(Spoken and Written)
3. Visual Communication
10 VC Skills Worth Mastering(Spoken)
Functions of Verbal Communication
be friendly
think before you speak
be clear
be authentic to self
practice humility
speak with confidence
focus on body language
be concise
learn the art of listening
+ sharing meanings
+ shaping thought
+ naming
+ performing actions
+ crafting conversations
+ managing relationships
- messages expressed by
than linguistics means
- 60% communication - non-verbal (Burgoon & Bacue, 2003, p. 179)
- includes kinesics, facial expressions, outward appearance, paralinguistic
(Non-Verbal Aspects of Speech)
the study of body position and motion
facial expressions
eye movements
two dimensions of appearance
Physical Attractiveness
the study of how people use space
Edward Hall: The Four Distance Zones
1. intimate distance - ranges from skin contact to 45 cm
2. personal distance - ranges from 45 cm to 12 m
3. social distance - ranges from 1.2 to 3.6 m
4. public distance - extends toward from 3.6 m
Visual Communication
using models, graphs, pictures, maps, tables etc.
to communicate
Use of Jargon
Physical Disabilities
Lack of Interest
Emotional Barriers and Taboos
Differences in Perception and Viewpoint
Cultural Variations
Environmental Distractions
Information Overload
1. Completeness
2. Conciseness
3. Consideration
4. Concreteness
5. Clarity
6. Courtesy
7. Correctness
Characteristics of Non-Verbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is inevitable.
Nonverbal communication is the primary conveyor of our emotions.
About 93 percent of the emotional mean-ing of messages is conveyed nonverbally (Mehrabian, 1972)
Nonverbal communication is multi-channeled.
Nonverbal communication is ambiguous.
Types of Non-Verbal Communication
what and how touch communicates
the interpretation of a person's use of time
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