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Assessing and Teaching Reading: Fluency and Comprehension

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L. Tohmy

on 25 October 2015

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Transcript of Assessing and Teaching Reading: Fluency and Comprehension

Assessing and Teaching Reading: Fluency and Comprehension
What is Reading Comprehension?
Reading comprehension is the ability to create meaning out of written text and to realize the purpose of the text.

Basic reading skills support text comprehension.
- Decoding
- Fluency
- Vocabulary knowledge
- Prior knowledge

Reading Comprehension, Continued
Fluency
Self-Questions
that foster comprehension:
1. What’s happening?

2. What’s the big idea?

3. What do you want to know more about?

4. Who or what is interesting to you?

5. What do you want to find out?

6. What’s is happening so far?

7. How well do I understand what I’m reading?

8. What would I like to understand better?

9. What is the author saying, and what did I think about it?

10. What am I learning?

Factors of Reading Comprehension
Reader's Prior Knowledge
Reading skill
Text
Readability
Text Structure
Organization
Activity
Purpose of reading activity

Motivation to continue reading
CONTEXT
Learning situations that ensure success
Types of Comprehension
Explicit Comprehension
This information can be found directly in text, and relies minimally on students’ use of background knowledge.


Inferential Comprehension

This information cannot be easily found in the text. Students need to activate prior knowledge to obtain the information.
Comparison of Narrative and Expository Text
Narrative Text (Fiction)
- Author’s Purpose: entertain
- Elements: Characters; setting; plot; problem/solution
- Consistent organization and text structure
- Varying points of view
- Inferences and connections
- Comprehension assessed through discussion


Expository Text (Nonfiction)
-Author’s Purpose: inform
- Varying text structures
- Factual information and abstract ideas
- Writer’s perspective
- Logical deductive inferences
- Comprehension assessed through structured tests


Setting the Purpose
Before Reading
Activate Prior Knowledge
Make Prediction
Ask Questions

During Reading
Revise your predictions
Answer the questions
Analyze what you have Read

After Reading
Evaluate: Were your questions answered?
Review what you have learned
Verify whether your predictions were right

Strategy :
Guided Reading
- A balanced approach to teaching reading

- Based on student's stage of reading (Leveled Text)

- Incorporates different strategies to teach fluency and comprehension.

- Allows students to practice strategies with teacher support.

- Uses guided writing to promote reading goals.

- Provides analysis of reading assessments

- Establishes an instructional focus

- Teaches reading strategies for use when students encounter a “stuck point.”
Leveled Text
Fountas and Pinnell (2008)
Developed the alphabetic leveled reading system that supports teachers with finding the appropriate stage/level that a student reads on.
R
eading Stage Alphabetic Levels Text Level Range

Emergent

A-C K

Early D-I 1st

Transitional J-P 2nd-3rd

Fluent Q-Z 4th-6th


Strategy :
Question/Answer Relationship
Strategy –
ASK IT
A
ttend to the clues as you read
S
ay some questions
K
eep predictions in mind
I
dentify the answer
T
alk about the answers

Good readers ask and answer questions about important details of the text before, during, and after reading.
Strategy :
Paraphrasing
Good Readers are able to restate the main ideas and details of the text in their own words.

Strategy –
RAP
R
ead a Paragraph
As you read, think about what the words mean.

A
sk yourself
What are the main idea and details in this paragraph?

P
ut the main idea and details into your own words
Putting the details in your own words helps you remember the information.

Strategy:
Retell
Good readers are able to retell story events in correct sequence.
Student take turns describing one of the following:
Thumb
: The characters are…
Pointer
: The setting is…
Tall Finger
: The problem is…
Ring Finger
: The events are (beginning, middle, ending)
Little Finger
: At the end…


Check student understanding:
S
top
T
hink
P
araphrase
Strategy :
Summarizing Fictional Text
Good readers analyze and synthesize story details to identify the most important event(s) in the story.



S-W-B-S
S
omebody: Who is the story about?
W
anted:
What does the character want? What is the problem?
B
ut:
But what happened?
S
o:
What happened next? What is the Solution?

Good readers are able to draw conclusions using information in the text, combined with background knowledge to think deeply and develop new ideas.

I read…
I know…
Now I’m thinking…

Strategy :
Drawing Conclusions
Further Strategies
Sticky Notes
This strategy can be used to support student’s with tracking Very Important Parts (VIP) of the text.
Appropriate for any genre
Tracking a character’s feelings
Locating important information about a topic.

Highlighting
This strategy is used to support student with tracking important details in the text.

1.
Highlight the important part

2.
Paraphrase the part

3.
Write why you think it is important
Reading 180
This reading program is published by Scholastic and is designed for students who are struggling with reading comprehension.

- Direct reading instruction
- Small group instruction
- Independent reading
- Computer Instruction

Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided reading: good first
teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

George Mason University Programs in Special Education. (2011).
Language development and reading. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

Richardson, J. (2009). The next steps in guided reading. New York,
N: Scholastic.

Vaughn, S. R., & Bos, C. S. (2015). Strategies for teaching students with
learning and behavior problems (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

WETA. (2015). Choral Reading. Retrieved from
www.readingrockets.org

WETA. (2015). Reader’s Theater. Retrieved from
www.readingrocketes.org
Story Mapping
The student creates a visual representation of the story by recording important elements (e.g. main character, setting, conflict, major evets, outcome) on a graphic organizer (Swanson & DeLa Paz, 1998).

1) Explain strategy to students.
2) Determine what characters were involved in the story.
3) Determine setting details.
4) Identify conflicts within story.
5) Determine major events of story.
6) Identify how conflict was resolved.
7) Students provide responses via story map.
8) Classroom discussion on details of story held.

Strategy Steps :
Story Mapping
Depending on each student's reading level and learning needs, instruction must be differentiated to best meet each student's needs.

Audio strategies
- Recordings
- Computer programs

Visual strategies
- Diagrams
- Projections
- Graphic organizers
- Picture cues

Kinesthetic strategies
- Manipulatives
- Probes
- Word processors

Strategy :
K-W-L
This is designed to activate students’ background knowledge and to assist students in setting purposes for reading expository text. (J. Bryrant, 1998; Ogle, 1986, 1989, 2009)
K
now
Assessing what I
know

W
ant to know
Determining what I
want
to learn

L
earned
Recalling what I
learned
Strategy Steps :
K-W-L

1. The teacher and students discuss what the students already
know
; discussion intended to “jump-start” brainstorming procedure

2. Teacher and students discuss what they
want to learn
from the text. Students write down questions of interest to them.

3. Students record what they have
learned
after reading assigned text. After doing so, students check recordings against questions they had before the reading.

Strategy :
Self-Questioning
Students stop periodically while reading to ask and answer questions related to the text.
.
Various forms of self-questioning strategies improve literal and inferential comprehension.

For students ranging in age (especially elementary) and ability levels.





(Chan, 1991; Davey & McBride, 1986; Graves & Levin, 1989; Nolte & Singer, 1985).
Strategy Steps:
Self-Questioning
Teach the students the concept of a main idea. At each stage, teach them how to identify the main idea(s) in paragraphs.

Questions
1. Ask yourself: why are you studying this passage?

2. Find the main idea(s) in the paragraph, and underline it(them).

3. Think of questions relating to the main idea you have underlined.
Good questions are those that directly focus on important textual elements.

4. Learn the answer to your question using the reading.

5. Always look back at the previous questions and answers to see how each question and answer provides you with more information.


This is the student's ability to read at a level-appropriate rate, with accuracy and proper expression.

Accuracy is determined by the Words Correct Per Minute, or WCPM.

Best determined using one passage at student's
independent reading level
, and one at an
instructional reading level
.

Fluency Formula:
(WCPM) - (# of errors) = Fluency Rate
Strategy:
Repeated Reading
Procedures:
Use short, meaningful passage (50-200 words).

Have student read passage 3-5 times or until student achieves appropriate fluency.

Appropriate fluency achieved when:
Fluency rate meets reading level standards.

Word recognition accuracy: 90-100%
WHAT
This EBP improves reading comprehension by targeting phonics, phonemic awareness, comprehension, spelling, vocabulary, and
fluency
.

HOW and WHERE IT WORKS
Teacher modelling, repeated reading, progress monitoring.
Individual and small group settings.

EFFECTIVENESS
Implemented since 1991.
Studies show possitive effect on fluency, accuracy, and comprehension.
http://www.readnaturally.com/intervention-programs?skill=1
Strategy:
Choral Reading
Strategy Steps:
Choral Reading
Reading aloud in unison with a small group or whole class.

Builds fluency, self-confidence, and motivation.
1. Choose book or passage for group read aloud:
Patterned or predictable
Appropriate length
Independent reading level

2. Provide copy of text for each student.

3. Read passage aloud to model fluent reading.
Indicate using marker or finger to follow along.

4. Reread passage in unison as a whole group.
Strategy:
Reader's Theater
Choral Reading
Reader's Theater
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/readers_theater
(0:30 - 2:30 / 3:30- 4:17)
http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/choral_reading
Strategy Steps:
Reader's Theater
1. Choose appropriate story to be divided into a script.

2. Assign roles to group of students
Have groups and roles on display.
Direct students to highlight their parts in the script.

3. Allow time for oral practice (students don't need to memorize the script).

4. Allow time for a group "performance" with the class as the audience.
Students work in a small group to read through a script that is at an appropriate reading level.

Focuses on fluency and expression.

Promotes teamwork and self-confidence.

Source: Reading Rockets (2015)
Source: Reading Rockets (2015)
Source: Reading Rockets (2015)
Source: GMU Custom Text (2011)
Source: GMU Custom Text (2011)
Source: GMU Custom Text (2011)
Reciprocal Teaching:
A Collaborative Teaching Strategy
This strategy is used to facilitate metacognition during the reading process.

The teacher and student work together as students learn to monitor their comprehension as they read.

It teaches students to ask questions during reading and helps make the text more easily comprehended.

Step 1. Review (Before Reading)
Brainstorm
Predict
Step 2. Click and Chunk (During Reading)
Monitor
Fix Up
Step 3. Wrap Up (After Reading)
Ask Questions
Review


http://www.vdoe.whro.org/elementary_reading/ReciprocalTeaching1-20-2010_F8_FastStart_512k.swf


References
Source: Reading Rockets (2015)
Differentiated Instruction
Text Structure and Reading Comprehension
Good readers are able to recognize different text structures to understand and predict.
Recognize signal words and phrases in the text.

Narrative Text
Story grammar:
setting, problem statement,
event sequences or episodes, ending
Ask Story Grammar questions!
Expository Text
Expository
text structures
: description, sequential, argument or persuasion, compare/contrast, cause/effect, problem/solution.
Recognize signal words and use graphic organizers!


That's all folks!

Happy Teaching!
Lorene Tohmy, Cathy Lewisbu, InRae Baek
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