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British Rule and the Modernization of India

Eastern Studies Project
by

Brandon Jermyn

on 26 February 2014

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Transcript of British Rule and the Modernization of India

Civil Services: Railway Police
Criminal activity on the rails became a noticeable problem in 1878.

British rail authorities began designating staff as "police" in 1854.
Later created an official contingent for railway security in 1861 under the Police Act.

This set the basis for India's current railway police, the "RPF" (Railway Protection Force).
General Infrastructure
The Railway Network
The British begin building a railroad to satisfy the need for quicker transportation of cotton from fields to harbors.

Almost 15400 miles of track were laid by the end of the 19th century.

Later became the largest railway network in Asia, and the third largest in the world.
Religion
Indians were traditionally Hindu or Buddhist.
Education
The British aimed to spread western ideas to younger generations of Indians.

The British government created a network of schools and universities across India.
Effects of British Education
General literacy greatly increased.

Greater interest in public services.

The middle class begins to emerge, taking on modern jobs as doctors, lawyers, technicians, and teachers

Individuals now gain power and position through personal skills and professional capability.
Democratic Influence
Under the Mughal Empire (pre-British rule), India was run by hereditary rulers and a feudal society.

British rulers introduced western ideas of elected leaders and representatives
Also introduced the ideas of
a parliamentary government
government-regulated civil services
district administration
local self-government
an independent jury
Rights and Freedoms
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of the Press
Security of Life & Property
Equality under the Law
Abolished infanticide, outlawed bride burning, and allowed Hindu widows to re-marry.

*Given India's strict cultural beliefs, some of these ideas were either shunned or altered.
Policies adopted by Indian Republic
Westminster government

Use of a Prime Minister, elected by majority vote from a house of the Indian Parliament

Certain legislation, including about 200 articles from a British Act made in 1935. (Government of India Act)
Infrastructure
Culture/ Society
Government
Despite some Indian resentment during the British Raj, many government principles and policies of the British were adopted by the new Indian Government.
British Rule and the Modernization
of India

"British involvement in India has led
to major changes in Indian
infrastructure, Indian government,
and Indian culture"

- The fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area.
-e.g. transportation, communication systems, etc.
Brandon Jermyn
The British implemented modern techniques and technologies into Indian society, Including:

Telegraph/ postal network
Modern schooling
Irrigation canals
And.....

British Christian missionaries traveled to India with the intent to establish Christianity in India.

Cities like Kolkata and Mumbai begin growing as "cardinal presidency" towns

Some readily accepted Christian ideas, while others remained openly hostile towards Christian advances.
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