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Chapter 4: Microprocessor basics, Input, Output & Memory dev

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Sufyaan Saeed

on 27 November 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 4: Microprocessor basics, Input, Output & Memory dev

Microprocessor Basics
A microprocessor, also called CPU is a multipurpose, programmable logic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions and provides results as output
Classification of Microprocessors
Microprocessors can be classified by :
The width of the data format(4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit, or 128-bit) they process
Their instruction set for example CISC, complex-instruction-set computer, or Risc, reduced-instruction-set computer.
Characteristics of Microprocessors
Clock speed: Given in megaherts (MHz) or gigahertz(GHz), the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute.
Chapter-4
Chapter 4: Microprocessor basics, Input, Output & Memory devices
Input devices

The input unit is responsible for accepting unit like data and instructions from the user
There are many input devices used these days.
Some of the most common ones are keyboard, mouse and microphone.
Made by: Sufyaan Saeed Grade 11-B
Instruction Set: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute
Bandwidth: The number of bits processed in a single instruction
Input Devices
Keyboard:It is a typewriter like device which is used to type in the letters, digits and commands
Mouse: Its a pointing device with a roller on its base or a laser tracker. A mouse controls movement of mouse pointer on screen
Microphone: Microphone is used to send voice input to ccomputer
Output Devices
The output unit is responsible for producing the output in user readable form. Various output devices make the output unit of the computer, they will be discussed ahead.
The function of an output device is to present processed data to the user.
Output Devices
There are many types of output devices, their main sub categories are:
Monitors
Printers
Speakers
Monitors
Monitors are of two types:
Cathode ray tube (CRT)
Liquid crystal display or TFT Display
Cathode Ray Tube
The CRT works in the same way as a television, it basically consists of a cathode ray gun with a fluorescent screen on the end which is where the image or the output is shown.
Liquid Crystal Display
Liquid crystal is the material used to create each pixel on the screen. This material has special properties one of which is that it can "polarize" light depending on electrical charge across it
TFT is the device within each pixel that sets the charge.
Printers
Printers are widely used around the world for their convenience of printing the output from the screen to piece of paper which can be carried around
Printers are mainly categorized in two, impact printer and non-impact printers.
Impact Printer
In these printers, there is mechanical contact between the print head and paper the most common impact printer used these days i dot matrix printer
Dot-Matrix Printer
A dot matrix printer is the most popular serial printer, it prints one character at a time.
Non Impact Printer
In these printers, there is no mechanical contact between print head and paper. There are 5 types of non impact printer:
Electromagnetic printer
Thermal printers
Electrostatic printers
Inkjet printers
Laser printer
Electromagnetic printer
A magnetic image of what is to be printed is whritten on a drum surface, this surface is then passed through magnetic powder which adheres to charged areas. The powder is pressed onto the paper.
Thermal Printer
An electric pulse is converted to heat on selected sections of a printing head and when this heat is applied to a heat sensitive paper, a character is printed.
Electrostatic printers
This requires a paper to be induced with an electric charge with nibs to wherever characters are required, the the paper passes through a toner which contains colored particles of the opposite charge therefore adhering to the paper.
Inkjet Printers
In these type of printers, a stream of ink is passed to the paper through an electrostatic field which deflects the stream to desired positions

Laser printer
In this type of printer, a drum within is charge on places where characters are required, then this drum is exposed to the laser beam, the areas exposed to the laser beam attract the toner that form the image or characters. The toner is then permanently fused onto the paper by hot or pressure
Speakers
Speakers recieve the sound in form of electric current from the sound card and then convert it to sound format
Memory Devices
Memory is a very important part of a computer. Without memory there could be no computers as we now know them
The main memory
The main memory can be divided into two main parts,
RAM
ROM
RAM
It is a temporary memory. The information transfer from any desired random location There are two types of RAM, dynamic RAM and static RAM.

Dynamic RAM
Dynamic RAM consists of a ansistor and capacitor thats capable of storing an electric charge. It provides volatile storage that is, content is lost when the system is shut down. Dynamic RAM consist of MOSFET (metal oxide semi conductor). The different types of D-RAM are EDO DRAM, SDRAM (Synchronous D-RAM), RDRAM (Rambus D-RAM), DDR(Double data rate) SDRAM
Static RAM
Static RAM Is also volatile but as long as they are supplied with power,they need no special regenarator circuits to retain the stored data
ROM
Read only memory is a memory unit that performs the read operation only, it does not have a write capability. This is permanent memory also called non-volatile memory. When the power is shut down, the contents of this memory will not be deleted. There are 3 types of ROM, P-ROM(Programmable ROM), EP-ROM(Eraseable P-ROM), EEPROM(Electronically erasable P-ROM)
Cache Memory
It is a high-speed memory used in CPUs, whenever any data is required, CPU first checks the cache, if required data is found in the cache then no need to access memory therefore making it very fast. It is also used in microprocessors. There are two types of cache, level 1 and level 2 cache. Basically Level 1 cache is used inside the CPU and works at half the clock speed of CPU and level 2 cache is used externally to the CPU and resides on the motherboard
Secondary Memory devices
Secondary memory devices are used o store large amount of data permanently
Vaious types of secondary memory:
Hard drive
Floppy disk, These two are magnetic memory
CD-ROM
DVD-ROM, These two are optical memory
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