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STI policy and social change

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Yanuar Nugroho

on 2 June 2011

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Transcript of STI policy and social change

innovations, (science &) technology policy
and social change @yanuarnugroho hallsworth research fellow in political economy
of innovations and social change
manchester institute of innovation research
university of manchester, united kingdom "Ponsel telah sangat mengubah hidup kami. Di situ [sambil menunjuk] dulunya hutan jati. Tapi sekarang sudah tidak ada. Orang-orang menebang pohon jati dan menjualnya dengan cepat supaya bisa membeli ponsel dan sepeda motor! Sekarang tidak ada yang bisa hidup tanpa ponsel. Tapi, biaya untuk mengisi pulsa [ponsel] secara rutin sangat mahal. Jadi, orang harus mencari kerja yang membuat mereka bisa membeli pulsa. Kerja apa? Jadi tukang ojek! Karena gampang dan hasilnya cukup untuk membeli pulsa. Betul kan?" (NN, penduduk desa Wonosari, wawancara, 12/10/10)

"Sekarang di daerah ini sudah tidak ada lagi becak. Tukang becak harus pindah ke daerah lain atau harus berganti pekerjaan baru. Ini juga gara-gara ponsel. Sebelum ada ponsel, kami harus naik becak begitu turun dari bis. Sekarang, sebelum bisnya sampai, kami bisa menelepon rumah dan minta keluarga untuk menjemput di tempat turun dari bis. Atau kita bisa memanggil tukang ojek yang juga sudah punya ponsel." (NN, penduduk Wonosari, wawancara, 12/10/10) a story from the field ... agenda What is innovation?

National Systems of Innovation

Modes of knowledge production

Triple Helix: a 'new' norm?

Sci-Tech-Innov in Development

Problem of disembeddedness?

Some lessons learned Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883 -1950) was an economist and political scientist. He popularised the term "creative destruction" in economics and lays out a clear concept of entrepreneurship. He distinguished inventions from the entrepreneur’s innovations. Schumpeter pointed out that entrepreneurs innovate not just by figuring out how to use inventions, but also by introducing new means of production, new products, and new forms of organisation. These innovations, he argued, take just as much skill and daring as does the process of invention. Innovation by the entrepreneur, argued Schumpeter, leads to gales of “creative destruction” as innovations cause old inventories, ideas, technologies, skills, and equipment to become obsolete. The question is not “how capitalism administers existing structures, ... [but] how it creates and destroys them.” This creative destruction, he believed, causes continuous progress and improves the standards of living for everyone. Innovation is usually understood to be distinct from invention. While invention is the first occurrence of an idea for a new product or process, innovation is the first attempt to carry it through into practice (c.f. ‘Creative Destruction’ – Schumpeter, 1934).
Obviously they are closely linked and difficult to distinguish one from the other (Fagerberg, 2005).
Literature on innovation is extensive and covers a wide range of topics , and studies on the role of innovation in economic and social change show a trend towards cross-disciplinarity. This reflects the fact that no single discipline is capable of dealing with all aspects of innovation.
Innovation studies examine: Invention and “search” (e.g. research and development); Innovation (not just successful innovation); Implementation; Diffusion; Changed practices Sci-Tech-Governance & Society Foundations of National Systems of Innovation

Lundvall 1992 – narrow (“searching and exploring”) and broad definitions – all parts and aspects of the economic structure and the institutional set up affecting learning as well as searching and exploring…production, marketing, finance sub-systems
Nelson and Rosenberg 1993 – “a set of institutions whose interactions determine the innovative performance of national firms”
Broad concept of innovation where the context is crucial – not just leading edge technological firms or world class research performers – but national technological capabilities and processes of transforming them into economic wealth Links of Sci-Tech-Innov to Policy perspective
Metcalfe 1995 – “that set of distinct institutions which jointly and individually contribute to the development and diffusion of new technologies and which provides the framework within which governments form and implement policies to influence the innovation process. As such it is a system of interconnected institutions to create, store and transfer the knowledge, skills and artefacts which define new technologies.”
Motivations, incentives and interconnectedness
Science & technology from the policy perspective: Changing dynamics of knowledge production? on knowledge production triple helix:
a new norm or euphoria? The Triple Helix thesis states that the university can play an enhanced role in innovation in increasingly knowledge-based societies (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 2000)
Three institutional spheres drive the global knowledge-based economic system: university, industry and government
Interactions between them shape them (dynamic) - inter-institutional relations
Three ‘dynamics’:
1. Economic dynamics of the market
2. Internal dynamics of knowledge production
3. Governance of the interface
Firms not centre stage Sci-Tech in development perspective “Policy for Science” (1945-1970)
“Science, the Endless Frontier”(Bush, 1945)
S&T funded because unquestionably worthwhile, required for national security; many decisions taken by industrial-military complex elites;
linear model of innovation – science as the motor of progress (without clear idea of exactly how..)
big science and technology programmes, e.g. nuclear, aerospace (prestige)
Policy concerned with managing growth of science as determined by scientists in their disciplines “Science in Policy” (1970-1980s)
an age of questioning – need for reform – energy crisis, “Limits to growth”
Brooks report (OECD 1971) Science, Growth and Society
recognition that science should support policy objectives of modern state, policy not merely concerned with science itself
Social goal rationales move into the ascendancy – national well-being
science as a problem-solver
more demand than supply-led “Research for Competitiveness and Innovation” 1980s, 1990s…?
slow economic growth – need to relate science to national economic performance
strategic science, “critical technologies”, focus on technology strengthening
Rise of large cooperative technological programmes leading to market failure
evaluation and foresight
integrate demand and supply – more systemic and network views abound – about greater co-ordination Rationales for the new millennium?
Re-emergence of rationales for funding basic research (eg Japan)
Dominance of systems views founded in evolutionary economics
Support of networks (eg ERA, regional science policy)
Recognition of changes in institutions and global context of research some experiences ... EU – strong research policy
‘Aho report’ criticising failure to meet Lisbon target
Triple Helix as norm, despite (heavy) criticisms
BRIC – strong leadership
Clear technology policy (or at least, technological visions)
State plays a central role
SEA – clear objective
Singapore: clear policy, lead by state, influenced by business, ‘supplied’ by university; (civil) society left behind market; services and service industries
Thailand: policy transfer, referring to EU techno park as manifestation of TH practices; strong role of government; central role of culture creative and services industry
Malaysia: technology centre; strong role of government, high level of institutional coordination; high participation of (civil) society; but lacking systems at national level
India – wide participation
Strong role of (civil) society, clear policy objective, facilitated by state, influenced by brain circulation the progress ...
Without even an office in Indonesia, Facebook users have reached more than 35 million(Socialbakers, 2011), taking over the once-famous Friendster (this had been forecast back in 2009).
Some 20.8% of Indonesian internet users aged over 15 tweet, making them the most prolific users of Twitter on the planet (compared to Brazil with 20.5% and the US with 11.9%) (Doherty, 2010) which left Plurk.com behind very quickly.
In May 2010 Yahoo! ventured into the emerging social media market in Indonesia by buying Koprol, a location-based social network (The Economist, 2011).
Multiply plans to set up an office in Jakarta to serve around 3 million loyal users who would like to sell goods and services using the platform (Jakarta workshop, 21/10/10). TOP 5 countries on Facebook
1. United States 154,828,140
2. Indonesia 36,479,400
3. United Kingdom 29,833,760
4. Turkey 28,359,200
5. India 25,071,960
(socialbakers.com, 5/5/11) facebook nation? a case ... a problem of disembeddedness? imperative: re-embedding technology Hari itu tanggal 5 November 2010, pukul 19.30 WIB, ketika sebuah panggilan telepon dari seorang relawan lapangan memberi peringatan kepada kami. Kami menerima permintaan darurat dari pos di Wedi, Klaten, yang baru saja kedatangan aliran pengugsi dari Balerante dan Sidorejo, dan kini membutuhkan 6.000 porsi nasi bungkus. Telepon tersebut terdengar begitu putus asa, meminta kami untuk mengumumkan ke masyarakat luas tentang kebutuhan nasi bungkus yang mendesak. Kami saat itu tidak berani menjanjikan apa-apa karena hari sudah malam. Siapa yang dapat menyediakan sekian ribu nasi bungkus dalam situasi seperti itu? Akan tetapi, kami terus berusaha. Tim administrasi kami melakukan semua hal yang mereka bisa. Beberapa menelepon pos dan kamp pengungsi lain yang mungkin memiliki kelebihan nasi bungkus. Tapi, kami tidak mendapatkan yang kami butuhkan. Respon yang kami dapat jauh dari kebutuhan.

Jam 19.5, Nasir men-tweet
#DONASI nasbung utk 6000 pengungsi di Pusdiklatpor Depo Kompi C, Wedi, Klaten. MALAM INI | Candy 081XXXXXXXXX.

Waktu terasa berlalu begitu lambat. Kami tahu bahwa tweet kami di-retweet oleh follower @Jalinmerapi. Dalam setengah jam, telepon kami berdering lagi. Si relawan yang sebelumnya menelepon dari Klaten memberitahu kami dengan gembira bahwa mereka telah menerima nasi bungkus untuk 6.000 pengungsi. Dia meminta kami memberitahu publik tentang berita gembira itu sehingga tidak ada kelebihan kiriman nasi bungkus.

Kami sangat gembira dan lega mendengarnya. Salah satu dari kami men-tweet
#DONASI Puslatpur Depo Kompi C, Wedi, Klaten sdh kelebihan stok nasbung. Air minum masih dibutuhkan (ASD, relawan JalinMerapi, wawancara dan kesaksian tertulis, email 15/12/10). Tobucil & Klabs (tobucilhandmade.blogspot.com): mengadakan event untuk mendorong masyarakat untuk membuat dan menggunakan produk kerajinan tangan.
Combine Resource Institution merintis PasarKomunitas (pasarkomunitas.com), yang mengangkat potensi ekonomi di daerah pedesaan lewat manajemen pemasaran dan model investasi kreatif (cont. gaduhan/arisan modal).
Rumah Blogger Indonesia Bengawan (bengawan.org) memberdayakan produsen lokal melalui pelatihan dan workshop pembangunan kapasitas dan menghubungkan mereka ke pasar melalui inisiatif Produk Solo (produksolo.com), untuk mempromosikan produk lokal di pasar nasional dan internasional.
Soundboutique (twitter.com/soundboutiquex) menjadi forum untuk musisi dan pecinta musik elektronik; platform untuk diskusi, pertukaran informasi dan pengalaman; membawa musik kembali hidup lewat pertunjukan langsung di mana interaksi terjadi, bukan hanya memainkan ulang musik yang sudah direkam sebelumnya (menikmati musik secara kapitalistis)
Burgerkill, sebuah grup musik metal, membuat musik underground menjadi tren di kalangan anak muda di daerahnya. Melalui musik mereka mempromosikan nilai-nilai universal seperti keberagaman dan kebebasan berekspresi. sci-tech-innov policy:
re-embedding STI in society Governments and public institutions need to be ahead of the game in understanding changes in the innovation process and to be fully aware of their potential.
It can enhance the efficiency and productivity of public services and extend the range of those services and the way governments and public institutions engage with the public.
Well-implemented systems can improve policy decision-making
to develop the technical infrastructure to support innovation – (including research & development)
to facilitate organisational infrastructure and collaboration skills to enable next generation innovation.
Universities will become more entrepreneurial, but many will lag far behind the leading edge of innovative practice. Many will need to restructure their educational offerings considerably to provide the talent and skills necessary for new generation innovation. thank you! :-) @yanuarnugroho
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