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Transcript of The Book
(Italian for Division of Labor)
William + Adso
Beringar + Benno
Peasant Girl (more Peasants in General)
Bernardo Gui + Inquisition
Remigio or Salvatore
Severinus, Nicholas, Adelmo, Venantiaus (ze dead guyz)
Note: you can't do typical power structure in monestaries because that leaves nothing for the rest of us to discuss... sorry
Do we want to meet before the presentation and run it/ go over it together? Text me (since I lost all of my contacts) 845-901-9104
William and Adso
Peasants and Servants
Bernard Gui and The Inquisition
The Dead Monks
Visitors were treated as friends of the Abbot, and thus were held in high regard.
PDF of the book - http://www.dillgroup.ucsf.edu/~grocklin/Eco,%20Umberto%20-%20The%20Name%20Of%20The%20Rose.pdf
They are Franciscans in a Benedictine monastery, but both are Roman-Catholic orders.
"Or, rather, he led us to the cell assigned to my master, promising me that by the next day he would have cleared one for me also, since, though a novice, I was their guest and therefore to be treated with all honor"
- Adso (Terce, 1st Day)
Even with their honorable status, the monks doubt their intentions and often treat them as intruders.
"The sentence was uttered in an agitated tone..."
- Berengar (After Nones, 1st Day)
"...Malachi said, looking at William suspiciously..." (After Nones, 1st Day)
"...an intense desire to avoid that subject..."
- Severnus (Matins, 2nd Day)
In a place where knowledge and books are king, Malachi has the key to it all.
He still has to report to Abo, thus each holds a superficial power over the other.
“But before giving you that book, I would prefer to ask the abbot’s advice.” - Malachi (After Nones, 1st Day)
"No one should. No one can. No one, even if he wished, would succeed." - Abo (Terce, 1st Day)
He still falls victim to Jorge's poisoned pages however, which shows his humanity.
-looks after cellars and storerooms
-makes sure there's enough food for the monastery
-assistant to Remigio
-stands by kitchen to oversee distribution of food
Holds all power over monks, they all fear him.
"Older than anyone else living in the monastery save Alinardo of Grottaferrata, he is the one to whom many monks here confide the burden of their sins in the secret of confession" - Malachi (After Nones, 1st Day)
A self made, egocentric power
Every other position is "God given"
He kills the abbot, who has the theoretical absolute power.
TURNS MONKS AGAINST EACH OTHER OVER THE BOOK
-leader of a monastery
-chosen by other monks
-looked after important visitors
"When you realized you were going blind and would no longer be able to control the library, you acted shrewdly. You had a man you could trust elected abbot; and as librarian you first had him name Robert of Bobbio, whom you could direct as you liked, and then Malachi, who needed your help and never took a step without consulting you. For forty years you have been master of this abbey" - William (Day 7)
BLINDNESS AND GREED
His power lies in the library
"The abbot, as I have said, was a man of great and diplomatic composure, but this time he made a movement of surprise that robbed him totally of that decorum suited to a grave and magnanimous person, as Aristotle has it." (Terce, First Day)
Although Abo is in charge of the monastery, he is not allowed in the library.
"Only the librarian has, in addition to that knowledge, the right to move through the labyrinth of the books, he alone knows where to find them and where to replace them, he alone is responsible for their safekeeping." (Terce, First Day)
Doesn't hold the power in the library.
"So you had him come here, knowing you would kill him..." (William to Jorge, Night, Seventh Day)
Came to "power" because of Jorge, but really being manipulated as part of his plan.
-an Illuminator (illustrated manuscripts)
-only monk we don't meet before he dies
-fostered an interest in humor
-"a monk still young though already famous as a master illuminator, who had been decorating the manuscripts of the library with the most beautiful images" (pg. 31)
"The monks looked around for the abbot, to ask instructions and solace, and did not find him." (Night, Seventh Day)
"Or, if I am mistaken, our mysterious Salvatore—who, for that matter, since he comes from these parts, can speak easily with the local people and would know how to persuade a girl to do what he would have made her do, if you had not arrived.”
Salvatore and Remigio were responsible for the peasant girl being in the kitchen.
SOURCES OF POWER
Burned at the stake.
Assistant to the Librarian (Malachi)
• authority to give books
• books significant to monks
• monks indebted to Berengar
• Malachi has the final say in which books are given to whom
• William observes that two people who died asked something of Berengar
• exploits his knowledge to seduce Adelmo
• Adelmo's "ghost" refers to him as "master" as if he had been taught something.
• rank = knowledge
"And this pain was given me by my vainglory... for having thought to know more than the others."
-"This was a Psalter in whose margins was delineated a world reversed with respect to the one in which our senses have accustomed us"
-"I was torn between silent admiration and laughter, because the illustrations naturally inspired merriment though they were commenting on holy pages" (pg. 31)
-also, not killed by Jorge
Remigio and Salvatore met when they were with Dolcino.
• bursts into tears upon William's first question about the incident
• hallucinates the vision of Adelmo and the burning of the hand
• guilty tearing confession
Despite Berengar's deliberate exploitation of his knowledge (granted by the Church), he remains a slave to the guilt instilled in him by his Catholic indoctrination.
Remigio is replaced by Nicholas.
Sought out and tried to eliminate heretics.
Bernard Gui-Inquisitorial Technique
CONSCIOUS OF SOCIAL STANDING
-Bold, unafraid to speak up
Abo was hoping that William would find the cause of all of the deaths before Bernard arrived.
• reveals to William and Adso all that he witnessed on the night of Adelmo's suicide
• witnesses Jorge's argument on metaphors:
The abbot in an abbey has the power, but Abo was afraid if Bernard found out what was going on he would have control of the abbey.
-Have the potential to have a lot of power
"Jorge became enraged because he said the psalms are works of divine inspiration and use metaphors to convey the truth, while the works of the pagan poets use metaphors to convey falsehood and for purposes of mere pleasure, a remark that greatly offended me."
• has a strong opinion that he keeps to himself for personal and hierarchy-based reasons
"...looking to the Aedificium..."
"...through the infidel Moors."
"I know... or I believe that..."
"...fragments of truth of vaster dimensions than he knew."
• a physical manifestation of the authority that Benno fears as he divulges his own personal feelings and/or the things he has witnessed
• expresses a common belief of the Church, despite his personal feeling about African poetry
• shows uncertainty about expressing anything unflattering without the consent of someone of higher standing (probably Berengar)
"Bernard occupied with discovering the murderer will be a thorn in the side of my authority" (Abo, Vespers, Third Day)
-Glazier (aka Glassworker/Craftsman)
• Benno lacks the mental clarity and socio-political confidence to make something of his own observations
• directs William and Adso to the library, most likely to find out things that he himself would like to know
• intellectually suppressed despite a "lust for books"
Bernard is the reason Remigio and Salvatore are forced to leave the abbey.
• approaches the peasant girl like a frightened animal:
"Thinking that the duty of every good Christian is to succor his neighbor, I approached her with great gentleness..."
• refers to her as a "creature" -- could have more to do with femininity than economic standing
• discusses aesthetic greatness with allusions to spiritual greatness: "
Tower of David
• silent -- unknown dialect, an object to Adso
ARGUMENT BETWEEN THE COOK AND SALVATORE:
The cook refers to Salvatore as "neither flesh nor fowl" implying that there is a class below that of the peasants and servants, of which they are acutely aware.
-"translator from the Greek and the Arabic, devoted to that Aristotle who surely was the wisest of all men"
-"A heavy silence fell. Venantius of Salvamec dared break it" (Pg. 77)
-defends Adelmo's art, and stresses the importance of humor
-"The question, in fact, was whether metaphors and puns and riddles, which also seem conceived by poets for sheer pleasure, do not lead us to speculate on things in a new and surprising way, and I said that this is also a virtue demanded of the wise man" (Pg. 77)
-Circumstance of Death
-advancements in medicine
-written records of diseases, cures, and plants
-monastery gardens for herbs
-"in charge of the balneary, the infirmary, the gardens"
-Follows the rules of the abbey, but dabbles
in scientific thought and practices
this is why he is so helpful to
William and Adso
"Infirmorum cura ante omnia et super omnia adhibenda est, ut sicut revera Christo ita serviatur"
-makes William new spectacles
-intelligence & handiness
"In my garden I grow, for example, valerian. A few drops in an infusion of other herbs calms the heart if it is beating irregularly. An exaggerated dose brings on drowsiness and death.” (Pg. 262)
-practice that evolved in the middle ages
-prior to the 12th century, were primarily monks
illustrating volumes for the monastery's library
-by the 14th century, public demand had grown and
illuminated manuscripts were being produced
-Monastaries, unable to keep up
with demand, hired secular
artists, who lived among the monks
"The unfortunate herbalist lay, a corpse, in a pool of blood, his head bashed in" (Pg. 359)
"We no longer have the learning of the ancients, the age of giants is past" (Pg. 85)
"What a wonder...and yet many would speak
of witchcraft and diabolical machination" (Pg. 87)
"'These are better than the others,' he said. 'So. I’ll keep the old ones as a spare pair, and will always use yours.'" (Pg. 275)
-given the position of Cellarer after Remigio's
"in this country shameful things have been happening for many years, even in the monasteries, in the papal court, in the churches. ... Conflicts to gain power, accusations of heresy to take a prebend from someone ... How ugly! I am losing faith in the human race; I see plots and palace conspiracies on every side." (Pg. 422)
"Nicholas displayed great energy, shouted orders to the servants, gave advice to the monks surrounding him, sent some to open the other doors of the Aedificium, others to seek water and vessels of every kind" (Pg. 486)
(for these guys)
-Going with Jorge's "Revelations" analogy to the murders, these monks are one's that might be labeled as the unfaithful, however, Jorge didn't really have a plan anyway
-All involved in secular skills, applied in a religious setting
-employ more modern thinking, help out William & Adso
-In their path to seek knowledge, they are killed (both with intent or by accident (which we'll label as "fate")
and Power Structure
Eco's manipulation of the expectations of power structure within the monastery emphasizes his post modernistic views of society; namely the arbitrary nature of occurrences and relationships between people.
By juxtaposing modern and
antiquated characters and thoughts within the novel's conflicts, he draws
attention to the