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English Language - Language Diversity
Transcript of English Language - Language Diversity
Language Contact Why do some words drop out of use and disappear? Synonyms takeover
Cultural divergence Why do the meanings of some words change? Connotation
Amelioration 'Only a relatively small proportion of roughly 23,000-24,000 words of Old English vocabulary have survived to present day. However, what is left is typically both frequent and basic... Of the ten most frequent nouns in the Present-day English (as represented in the 100-million word British National Corpus) six are of Germanic origin: time, year, way, man, day, and thing. Frequent Old English verbs that have survived until today are go, have, think, find, and come'
- Culpeper et al, 2009: 28 In Present Day English, roughly 70% of words are borrowed. Old English Words in this period were borrowed from three main sources: Celtic Languages, Latin, and the Vikings Proper nouns were borrows such as 'Kent', 'King of Wessex, and 'Avon'. There was no point in changing these already established labels so we kept them. Latin Old Norse Celtic Languages Religious, medical, and time stamp words were borrowed from Latin such as 'Angel', 'Shrine', 'Month', and 'Martyr'.
The religious words are used in English because the bible was written in Latin which made it a holy language. We took most of our words from Old Norse when The Vikings in 787AD. Mostly borrowing adjectives, verbs, general vocabulary, abstract emotions, family, address, and pronouns such as 'Bank', 'Husband', 'Happy', and 'They'.
We also borrowed over 1,500 place names Middle English Early Modern English Late Modern English French Influence Church Fashion Cuisine Art Learning Medicine Government The French Language was also changing during this time.
Early French borrowings: 'Chair' 'Change' 'Charge' - /t /
Late French borrowing: 'Chamois' 'Chaperon' 'Chiffon' / /
In total, it is though that over 10,000 French words entered the English Lexicon Latin Influence Latin remained an influential language and continues to be a source of new words. However, since it was mainly a written language in the domains educations, medicine and science, many borrowed words entered English through the written mode. As a result, these words tended to have an elevated status and were considered even more formal than the French borrowing. This resulted in three levels of synonymy. Germanic French Latin ask
instruction 'At the end of the Middle English Period,, that is, the end of the fifteenth century, the lexical stock of English was thus dramatically different from Old English. Not only was it much larger and more stylistically flexible than before, it was also much more varied in terms of its linguistic background.'
-Culpeper et al (2009: 291) The term 'Renaissance' means 'rebirth' and it refers to the rebirth of knowledge, learning, and culture that started in fourteenth century Italy and spread across Europe. In England, the period was marked by a flood of new words, borrowing and coinages. Many were introduced to the language from Latin and Greek because there was a revival of interest in the classical world. Some words came into the language from the centres of European culture and learning, France and Italy. English gained thousands of words, partly from Latin and Greek, but also from Italian, Spanish, and French. Some words were borrowed and forgotten like 'termulent' for 'drunk'. Some words were borrowing from native sources, for example by Spenser in the Faerie Queene, 'forthright', 'flen', 'glance', 'surly', 'grovel'. Necessity Enrichment Two major reasons for the influx of words The 16th and 17th centuries were also an age of travel, exploration, and colonisation. The language was enriched by the arrival of hundreds if loan words from native languages and other trading nations. With the growth of the colonies, particularly in North America, there are signs of English developing into a global language, during the later stages of Early Modern English.
Some varieties of American English have vocabulary items which remain closer to Elizabethan English than modern British English. The main change in the language over the last 20 years has been through the increase of vocabulary. Not least because of Briatin's increasing status worldwide. This begins with the Napoleonic Wars (Trafalgar, Nelson, 1805), the Crimean War (Florence Nightingale, 1854-56 convalescence at Netley Abbey), The Boer Wars (Africe, 1898-1901) and perhaps ending with the two World Wars Internal Lexical Change Borrowing is not the only way for speakers of a new language to extend their lexicon. New experiences and new inventions require us to invent new words. Sometimes our desire to be different and to express ourselves in an individual way also leads us to invent new words - or neologisms.
Genuine word coinages are few and far between - we rarely start from scratch. How to create new words Coinages Compounding Grammatical Conversion Shortening (Including clippings, back formations, acronyms, and initialisation) Blend Affixation This type of process is the most common used in English today - about 40% of new words are compound words - and it was also highly frequent in Old English. Old English compound words called Kennings are often found in early poetry and were usually formed from two nouns. Shakespeare also followed this tradition by creating a diverse rang of invented compounds (e.g hugger-mugger, baby-eyes, fancy-free, lack-lustre).
Present Day English allows a whole range of combination (e.g adjective +verb - shortcut, Greek or Latin + Anglo-Saxon - microwave, internet Creating new words by adding affixes The combination of two or more existing words to form a new word. This mechanism of creating new words was also very popular in Old English and many of the affixes used then, are still in use today (e,g -ness, -ful, and -ish). But some of the very common Old English prefixes are no longer in use (e.g for- 'forgo' 'forsake', and with- 'withhold' 'withdraw, and suffixes -ship 'friendship', and -lock 'wedlock') fell our of use in translation to Modern English as Latinate affixes such as counter-, dis-, re- and trans- became available. Changing the word class of a lexical item without changing its form This was on of the consequences of the reduction of inflectional endings in English. Typical examples include drink - have a drink (verb to noun) and access - access a database (noun to verb). It is particularly noticeable in the writings of Shakespeare, who was especially fond of making verbs from nouns. Present Day English also commonly uses this technique, accounting for 20% of new words. Shortening of an existing word Shortening is a common process in more recent periods of English (and particularly today), although it is much less common than compounding or affixation. It accounts for 8% of all new modern words. In Old English and Middle English many words were consistently shortened to save money on expensive manuscript material. However, this was a convention of written English and should not be confused with the actual process of forming new words. Combining parts of existing words to form a new word This process was invented by Lewis Carroll in 'Through the Looking Glass'. The popularity of blending has risen considerably in recent decades. Today this accounts for about 5% of all new words. The invention of a totally new word During the Renaissance period, writers like Shakespeare flaunted their learning by coinages. The Anglo-Saxon alphabet is know as the Futhore. It contained between 26 and 33 runic characters. It was probably used from the fifth century onwards, for recording Old English and Old Frisian One theory proposes that it was developed in Frisia and from there spread later to England. Another hold that runes were first introduced to England from Scandinavia where the Futhore was modified and then exported to Frisia. When Latin-speaking monks came to England around 597AD to spread Christianity, runic writing became closely associated with Latin scriptoria. The arrival of these monks meant the tradition of writing in runes dwindled because people thought of Latin as a formal and prestigious language as it's used in the bible. Anglo-Saxon Runes 5th Century 1100 - 1500 AD Old English Middle English 450 - 1150 AD Early Modern English 1500 - 1750 AD Present Day English 1750 - Present Day Use of macrons (a) - perhaps to indicate vowel length or stress
Lack of punctuation - raised point (a dot) and some use of punctus elevatus (;) but did not follow PDE conventions
Lack of distinction between capital and lowercase forms - some variation in size to represent emphasis
High level of variability across dialectal regions - most manuscripts are West Saxon in origin and they still show variation across and within texts.
Despite the adoption of Latin alphabet, some evidence that the Runic alphabet was still used. Influence of Norman Scribes
Significant variation across time, area (e.g. dialectal variation - Scots 'double s') and even within the work of a single scribe - predictable considering this is the written version of a language with no official status at the time.
26 letters in Middle English alphabet
a b c d e f g h i/j k l m n o p q r s t u/v w x y z Allographs - Interchangeable Ash and eth dropped very early on in ME period
<j> and <v> introduced by Norman French but simply used as allographs of <i> and <u> (later on in the ME period and into EME there was a tendency to use one word initially and the other in all other places)
<g> was introduced from the continent to represent /g/
Yogh had a number of different values at this time including /g/ but also /j/, /x/ and d /. Sometimes also used to represent /z/ perhaps due to similarities in appearances. Changes <y> and <i> were used interchangeably due to pronunciation changes.
<q> and <z> had been known but rarely used in OE, due to French influence their presence in ME manuscripts increased particularly in spellings such as <qu> rather than the OE <cw> Thorn General tendency to replace the thorn with <th> digraph overtime ME period to represent voiced and voiceless dental fricatives
Thorn often still used in function words and abbreviations
Scribal practices sometimes led to confusion between 'ye' and 'the' -> pseudo-archaism ye olde coffee shoppe In comparison with PDE = Sparse and limited in variety
The point (or stop) = most common but use does not correspond to Modern practice
Comma did not appear regularly until the sixteenth century - but function was served to a certain extent by the punctus elevatus.
In later ME, a virgule (slanted line) indicated syntactic breaks - partly corresponded with PDE comma
No special marks to indicate a question (rarely a curved arch above a point) Puncuation Change Paradoxically, the spelling patterns of Present Day English were established at the beginning of the Early Middle English period but the graphemes themselves were not established in their current forms until well into the EME period.
Early in EME the yogh was completely abandoned - replaced with <y>, <s> or <gh>
The thorn lasted much longer but by the seventeenth century it was identical in form to <y> and was only used in a limited number of function words and often only used to save space.
The PDE practice of only using <i> and <u> as vowels and <j> and <v> as consonants was only established later in the seventeenth century.
Until the eighteenth century, the long <s> was used everywhere except at the end of words. Punctuation Change Capitalisation remained, if not random, at least haphazard. Common nouns were often capitalised - perhaps due to emphasis/perceived importance
During the sixteenth century, the comma replaced the virgule
The apostrophe was often used to indicate contractions (sometimes for metrical reasons in poetic contexts) but was not used to mark possession until the eighteenth century.
EME punctuation = rhetorical purpose and therefore often heavier than PDE Individual graphemes have not changed since end of EME period
Punctuation tends to be lighter (perhaps partly due to stylistic trend towards shorter and less complicated sentences)
Capitalisation is more restricted but compounded trade names are showing a more recent innovation (HarperCollins, StarWars)
More recent technological advances (e.g. texting etc) have introduced even more innovative practices and systems. American English Global English Indian English Pidgin and Creole 597 AD St Augustine and Roman missionaries arrive to spread Christianity, and bring Latin to English 787 AD Viking invasions begin 878 AD Establishment of the Danelaw after Battle of Edington between English King Alfred the Great, and Danish warlord Gunthrum. 1066 Battle of Hastings Old English 449-1066 Englishmen replaces by Frenchmen in all high offices of state and Church Imported principle of the feudal system which increased dialectal variation The English court was French speaking Languages have cognate words, they're from the same source Single tribe in Southern Russia 1822 Grimms Law - series of sound changes had occurred in Proto-Germanic which affected consonants The PIE Theory Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians Latin was the written language of the Church, also spoken in emerging universities. Norse only spoken, not written in Danelaw 1204 King John of England lost all of Normandy except the Channel Islands causing a decline of interest in France and French Religious pilgrimages increased inter-dialectal communication, and communication between different dialects of English led to the beginnings of standardisation. 1337-1453 The Hundred Years War- Intermittent conflict between France and England. England was eventually defeated and lost all Continental islands, meaning it was no longer important or practical to learn French 1348 The Black Death- By 1351, a third of the English population died. High mortality rate made lower classes more important in society resulting in increased respect of their language - English. 1362 The Statue of Pleadings - English became the official language of legal proceedings, and widely used in instruction in schools. 1473 First printed book in English: 'The recuyell of the Historyes of Troye' 1476 Printing is bought to England Standardisation of English Middle English 1066-1500 The Renaissance - Revival in interest in classical learning 16th Century The Protestant Reformation - Henry VIII had a dispute with the pope, so separated from the Roman Catholic Church. Late 16th Century Rising Nationalism - Emergence of States occuring all over Europe 1570 Elizabeth I had a long and popular reign, and was excommunicated in 1570 16th - 17th Century The Enclosures - Estates were turned into sheep pastures for wool production. Tenants were evicted, often revolted and gradually moved to cities causing urbanisation of country and rise of middle class 1604 English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey - A Table Alphabeticall 1755 Samiel Johnson - A Dictionary of the English Language 1884 Oxford University Press begin writing and releasing Oxford English Dictionary in short fascicles continuing standardisation Early Modern English 1500 - 1800 Exploration and Colonisation encouraged borrowings 17th - 19th Century Late 18th Century The Industrial Revolution and American Revolution 1870 Education Act - Established a system of School Boars to build and manage schools in areas where they were needed 1880 A further Education Act made school attendance compulsory between the ages of 5 and 10 Late Modern English 1800 -> Continued technological advances - impact of the internet in the last 20 years Changes in attitude - Political correctness Informalisation (Fairclough) American influence Present Day Amelioration The meaning of a word becomes more favourable 'Knight' used to mean boy, now means hero Pejoration The meaning of a word becomes more negative 'Wench' used to mean girl, now means prostitute Weakening The meaning of a word becomes less forceful 'Crucify' is now used casually Semantic Shift A changes in denotation such as generalisation or specification. Or, a change in connotation 'Immoral' used to mean a bit odd, now it means unethical Syntactical and Morphological Change The fundamental difference is that language went from Synthetic to Analytical. With it changing from high morpheme to word ratio to low morpheme to word ratio. In Old English, nouns had 3 genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), 4 cases (nomintaive, accusative, genitive, and dative), and 2 numbers (singular and plural)
Verbs, adjectives, and pronouns were also inflected in a similar way Leveling of inflections Morphological leveling may have been caused initially by the Viking Invasions. Norse was also Germanic so the roots of many words were very similar but the inflections varied
To allow for mutual understanding between Anglo-Saxons and Vikings within the Danelaw, slowly people stopped pronouncing the inflectional bound morpheme
Often the final consonant was lost first then the vowel sound was reduced to an unstressed syllable before being lost completely Other possible reasons for morphological leveling Quite a rigid word order in Old English -certainly a preference for certain phrase, clause, and sentence structures
Heavy overlapping of some of the forms of inflections
Heavy stress on root syllables and light stress on succeeding syllables lead to reduction of the vowels of inflections to / / By The end of the Middle English period, English only had a handful of left-over inflections. However, some dialectal variations in inflectional use was kept such as the eth.
Middle English plural forms used '-s' but in some Southern dialects the Old English '-n' was also seen.
In Southern and Midlands dialects the third person suffix was '-eth' but in the North it was the more familiar '-s'. The Southern inflection remained in use during the Early Middle English period too Choosing 'thou' or 'you' Old English:
Thou and its variant forms(thee, thy, thine) were used in talking to one person (singular)
You and its variant forms (ye, your, yours) were used in talking to more than one (plural) In sentences, thou and ye were used as the subject, whilst thee and you were the object. thou/ye saw me I saw thee/you Early Modern English:
you is used-
By people of lower classes to those above them
By upper classes talking to each other
thou is used-
By people of higher social status to those below them
By lower classes talking to each other
In addressing God
In talking to ghosts, witches, and other supernatural beings,
In an imaginary address to someone who was absent Pronunciation Change Consanant sounds of Germanic are retained, sound changed also resulted in 3 new phonemes /t / /d / / /. All consonants in Present Day English (apart from / /) existed in Old English Proto-Indo European German Dialects Proto-Germanic Anglos Saxons Frisians Jutes (Original source of lots of different languages) Allophones in Old English /s/ - /z/
/ / - / /
/f/ - /v/ These became separated and standardised rather than allophones because the words being made had different semantic meaning such as 'fine' and 'vine' Middle English Vowel Changes Majority unchanged
Some changes influences Orthography - <y> unrounded to <i>
French loan words added up to 7 dipthongs
Loss of word final unstressed vowel / / (schwa), but remained optional - e.g 'strengthe' The Great Vowel Shift 1400-1600 Articulation of vowels can be described in 3 ways: Backness, Height, Roundedness.
Backness relates to the position of the body of the tongue on the oral cavity
- /i:/ or /u:/
- /a:/ or / /
Height relates to how high the tongue is and the degree of the lowering of the jaw
-/a:/ /e/ /i:/ low to high
Rounding refers to the position of the lips
-/ / or / / unrounded and rounded Affected pronunciation of all the long vowels, and diphthongs of Late Middle English.
Raising of all non-high long vowels
No reason for it / / phoneme addition
Lost /l/ after low back vowels and before labial velar consonants - half, palm and folk but film silk and hulk.
/t/ dropped in consonant clusters involving /s/ (sometimes /d/) - castle and handsome Late 17th Century /g/ and /k/ lost initial position before /n/ - knight, know, knead and gnome 18th Century /w/ lost before /r/ in initial position - wrong, wrinkle Old English and Middle English /ng/ = / g/ Early Middle English /g/ lost in final position
Leads to / / = phonemic
Sin vs Sing French and Latin loan words <th> pronounced /t/, /n/
English <th> pronounced / / - author / / compared to author /t/ Orthography Change During Old English, spelling had been largely phonetic. During Middle English, spelling was initially phonetic but then pronunciation started changing. During Modern English spelling gradually became fixed but pronunciation continue to change. Old English Middle English Towards Modern English Old English was first written down about 700 AD. By the end of the 9th Century the West Saxon variety was dominant with the growth of political influence, Alfred the Great The spelling was much more phonetic than Modern English because of one to one correspondence After 1066, Norman French replaced the Old English in official documents. Norman scribes brought French and Latin conventions to the writing of English (and made mistakes!). This had a lasting effect on English Spelling French Scribed preferred <c> for /s/ where West Saxon used <s> e.g 'cinder' rather than Old English 'sinder', 'ice' not 'is'. Following Latin conventions, <o> replaced <u> in many words with a short vowel sound like 'come', 'monk', and 'love.
However, many vertical strokes (minims) in the letters might lead to confusion in reading. But <u> was retained in 'humble', 'hunt', 'thumb', and 'under'.
Some alternative forms have been regularised to distinguish homophones eg 'some' and 'sum'. French scribes introduced <ch> for /t / but later adoptions brought more confusing:
Greek words spelt <ch> have /k/ pronunciation like - 'chaos' and 'chorus'
Recent French adoptions have <ch> pronounced / / - 'chaise long' 'chandelier' This left <c> and <k> for /k/ - a simple rule emerged:
<c> before open and back vowels <a,o,u> and consonants - 'cat', 'crumb' and 'climb'
<k> before closed front vowels <i> - 'keen' <sh> used for / /, like sheep
<sc> was Old English for /sk/ and / /. This left <sc> ad <sk> for the /sl/ sound like scant and skirt.
Later adoptions introduced silent <c> in scene and science, as well as <c> pronounced /k/ like in sceptic and scope French did not (still doesn't) aspirate <h> on words from Latin. But scribes, influenced by Latin spelling, wrote the unpronounced <h> in French originals and English adoptions
<h> lost in able and ability
<h> written but silent in heir, hour, honest
In the majority, <h> written and pronunciation reintroduced in horrible and hospital. Conservative RP speakers still prefer 'an' before some of these words. French scribed introduced <qu> which eventually replaced Old English <cw> like queen and quick. Inconsistency with later French borrowings where <qu> is pronounced /k/ are shown in quay and queue The Yogh / / was later replaced by <gh> in high, laugh, and night <wh> replaced Old English <hw> (Scottish English still retains the pronunciation) From about 1400 English again used officially - Royal Chancery issuing official documents in increasing numbers in English. A Standard English starts to emerge in the London East Midlands triangle (Where Oxford and Cambridge Universities are). A spread in literacy meant that rich merchants were now employing clerks and a demand for wider education led to more books. The introduction of paper made writing cheaper and more accessible. The printing press (Caxton 1476) also helped greatly in the standardisation of spelling. In the late 16th and early 17th century, the English writing system was widely perceived to be a mess (and often this was blamed on printers). Various people attempted to reform our spelling around this time. Some, like John Hart (1596) wanted a more phonetic system, others, like Mulcaster (1582) wanted to keep the same alphabet but use it in a more systematic way. Lists of spellings and the first dictionaries '(like Cawdrey's in 1604) meant that spelling variation was no longer seen as acceptable From the early 1600s some key changes are:
Double vowel and silent <e> mark length more regularly
Double consonant tends to mean preceding vowel is short
Use of <u> and <v>, and <j> and <i> are generally standardised
Renaissance fashion for borrowing influences spelling eg rime - rhyme, and dette - debt American spellings differ
Modern spellings reform: Spelling Reform Association (1876)
British Spelling Reform Association (1879)
IPA By 1650, spelling was largely, but not totally, fixed. A century later, very influential in confirming the spelling system But! In Summary: Spelling change sometimes happens naturally
Sometimes they are linked to political events
Or Technology is the key factor
Cultural and Social factors can also play a role The loss of <k> in 'physick' and 'musick' The loss of word final <e> in many words 1066 French scribes Royal Chancery standardising in London East Midlands triangle Printing practises, word final e in 1476 by Caxton Spell check - American English Text language /h/ reintroduced to 'horrible', RP still put 'an' before Fashion and interest in Latin and Greek - 'debt' Theories Accommodation Theory Howard Giles We adjust our language to accommodate the person we are addressing Convergence - Decreasing the social distance between individuals
Upward convergence - When and individual increases the non-standard features of their language use and moves closer to standard
Downward Convergence - When and individual increases the non-standard features of their language use and move away from the standard
Mutual convergence - Both participants in a conversation converge their language towards each other
Divergence - Occurs when people's speech styes move away from each other. This creates distance between individuals and emphasises the differences Footing Erving Goffam The alignment of speakers in relation to the events at hand influences language use Equal footing - The status of participants in a conversation are equal
Unequal footing - When there is a difference in the status of each participant
Changing footing - Occurs when the participant in a conversation naturally alter their alignment during the course of an interaction Face Erving Goffam In any interaction participants will present and image of themselves. This can be called presenting a face. Face-threatening Act - When a participant rejects the image that is being presented by the other individual in a conversation by accusing them of insincerity or challenging them Positive and Negative Face and Politeness Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson The concept of individuals presenting either a positive or a negative face and using either positive or negative politeness strategies in their language use Negative Face - The freedom of action and freedom from imposition. Relates to an individuals freedom to act
Positive Face - The positive consistent self-image that people have, and their desire to be appreciated and approved of by other people. Relates to an individuals self esteem.
Face Needs - Met by positive and negative politeness
Positive Politeness - When a speaker seeks to minimize the threat to listener's positive face. This demonstrated when participants in an interaction, show others that they are liked and admired.
Negative Politeness - This is demonstrated when participants avoid intruding on others' lives, taking care not to impose their presence on them or pry into their personal affairs. The Cooperative Principle Paul Grice Cooperation between the participants in the fundamental principle underlying conversation. Conversations proceed on the assumption that those taking part have common goals and agreed ways of achieving these goals. The Maxim of Quantity- In making a contribution to a conversation participants should say neither more nor less than is required
The Maxim of Relevance - Participants should be relevant to the ongoing context of the conversation
The Maxim of Manner - Participants should avoid ambiguity and obscurity and be orderly in their utterances
The Maxim of Quality - Participants should be truthful and not say anything they suspect to be false
Flouting the Maxims - Occurs when these principles are not abided by. This can lead to conversational difficulties and breakdowns
Implicature - Information that requires the listener to read between the lines and look at what is implied rather than what is stated Important Dates 1565 - First permanent European settlement in North American, St Augustine, founded by Spanish
1607 - Virginia founded by English settlers
1620 - Plymouth Colony, near Cape Cod is founded by Pilgrim Fathers who were followed by English Puritans in New England
1783 - Britain cedes all lands west to Mississippi River
1777 - American Independance
17th + 18th Century - African Slavery
1808 - Slave trade abolished
1828- Noah Websters Dictionary
1845 - The Great Potato Famine caused Irish immigration
1950 - 250,000 permanent residence
2010 - 1 million permanent residence 1607 - 1776 1776 - 1900 1900 ->
Colonial Period National International Context: The growth of world English really got a boost when the first permanent English settlers arrived in the USA - at Chesapeake Bay, in 1607 - They named the settlement Jamestown and the area Virginia In November 1620, the Mayflower arrived with the 'Pilgrim Fathers' and established a colony at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts. By 1640, 25,000 English immigrants had come into the area In the 18th Century, 50,000 Scottish and Irish immigrants arrived and joined the colonies, by 1790 the population was around 4 million By 1890, it was over 50 million Immigration continues throughout the following decades and centuries; Germans, Italians, Irish and Jewish groups from across Europe and the Middle East, all settles in America and brought their own language with them. These influences development of American English, especially the vocabulary Before independence was granted, spoken English was almost the same in the American colonies and Britain. Americans began to change their spoken and written language after the Revolutionary War in 1776 They wanted to separate themselves from the British in language as they had separated themselves from the British government American Accents and Dialects: While written American English is standardised across the country, there are several recognisable regional variations in the spoken language, both in pronunciation and in vernacular vocabulary. After the Civil War, the settlement of the western territories by migrants from the Eastern U.S led to dialect mixing and leveling, so that regional dialects are most strongly differentiated along the Eastern seaboard The Lexicon: The new American vocabulary of the 19th Century came from a mixture of sources. Spanish and Native American words words were particularly influential but also many Old English words came to be used with new senses or in new phrases Many words we think of as 'Americanisms' like 'fall for our 'autumn' were originally British English words which fell out of usage over here, but remained in American usage. The opening of the West was a major factor in lexical expansion like bronco (1850), cattle town (1881), dude (1883), stampede (1843), and lasso (1819) The arrival of the waves of immigrants, had the effect of adding thousands of words to the lexicon including borrowings and the jargon of the immigration process. Delicatessan (1893), spaghetti (1880s) naturalization papers (1856) However, not everything was pleasant. There was a marked increase in offensive racial labels. American Orthography: Some American leaders proposed major changes in the language. I wanted a new system of spelling but my reforms were rejected, but my ideas influenced others. Benjamin Franklin Noah Webster wrote language books for schools. He thought Americans should learn from American books. He published his first spelling book in 1783. In 1828, 52 years after America's independence, he wrote 'An American Dictionary of the English Language' It was to fix many spelling which differed from British ones and established American English as a separate form with its own spelling patterns. Phonological Features: Noah Webster said every part of a word should be spoken. That is why Americans say 'sec-re-ta-ry. instead of 'sec-re-try' as the British do. His rule made American English easier for immigrants to learn. In words like 'for', 'lord' and 'farm' the /r/ is retained as a fricative sound. In most southern English accents this feature was weakened in the 17th Century, and lost in the 18th. Americans often pronounce words like 'dance', 'fast' and 'grass' with a low front /ae/ sound. They pronounce words like 'dock', 'fog', and 'rod' with a low back / / sound (As in present day Southern English 'car' shortened. The /t/ before unstressed vowels ('butter' and 'party') and syllabic /l/ ('bottle'), can be voiced in American English. So 'beating' sounds very much (but not quite) like 'beading' and 'matter' like 'madder'. The plosion is softer and less aspirated than British English. American Grammar: Differences in grammar are relatively minor, and normally do not affect mutual intelligibility; these include:
Different preferences for the past forms of a few verbs. For example American English 'learned', and British English 'learnt'. Or burned and burnt.
Different prepositions and adverbs in certain contexts like American English 'in school' and British English 'at school'
Whether or not a definite article is used, in very few cases (American English 'to the hospital' compared to British English 'to hospital . This contrasts however to American English 'actress Elizabeth Taylore', and British English 'the actress Elizabeth Taylor') Often, these differences are a matter of relative preferences rather than absolute rules; and most are not stable, since the two varieties are constantly influencing each other. American English sometimes favors words that are morphologically more complex, whereas British English uses clipped forms, such as American English 'transportation' and British English 'Transport' or where the British form is a back-formations like American English 'burglarize' and British English 'burgle' It should however be noted that while individuals usually use on or the other,both forms will be widely understood and mostly used alongside each other within the two systems Present Day India: Over 900 million people, which is more than Britain
Estimates of individual mother tongues in India range from hundreds to over a thousand
The official language of the Central Government of Republic of India is Standard Hindi
English is the secondary official language
Eighteen 'National Languages' such as Bengali, Gujurati and Urdu, have a special status in certain individual states Colonial Era: From the 16th century European powers such as Portugal, Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom established trading posts in India
Later, they took advantage of internal conflicts and established colonies in the country British Rule of India: It began with the arrival of the East India Company win 1600 who set up a number of trading posts in different cities around the country By 1765, the Company's influence had grown to such an extent that the British were effectively controlling most parts of the country. This date is often taken as the start of what is referred to as The Raj The British rule in India lasted until Independence in 1947 Establishment of English Language: Initially, English was only taught through the work of Christian missionaries. In the 1700's however, English was the language of administration and many educated Indians were demanding instruction in English. By 1857, universities had opened in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. English was increasingly accepted as the language of government, of the social elite, and of the national press. Independence in India (1947): Mahatma Gandhi led a national campaign of non-violent civil disobedience to obtain independence from British. After independence, it was intended that English would gradually be phased out as language of administration, but there was so simple solution for a replacement. At first Hindi, the most widely spoken language seemed the obvious choice but it led to violent protests in 1963. Despite pressure from nationalism, English is widely used in the Media, in Higher Education, and Government. It remains common means of communication for ruling classes and speakers of mutually intelligible languages.
Approximately 4% of the Indian population use English - 35 million speakers English in India now: Features: Roll the /r/ Dental fricative / / turns into alveolar plosive /d/ Bilabial approximant /w/ turns into Labiodental Fricative /v/ general mai - in general
awesome mausum - awesome weather
take care karje - do take care
bus - that's it
teek hai - okay
paka - pure
bahut - a lot
muthlab - meaning Reduplication - 'Come come! Sit sit!' Tag Questions /s/ becomes / / The progressive aspect in stative verbs: 'I am understanding it' 'wallah' to denote occupation or 'doing of/involvement in doing' something, as in 'The taxi-wallah overcharged me' 'Out of station' for 'out of town'. Originating in the posting of army officers to particular 'stations' during the days of the East India Company Referring to elders, strangers or anyone meriting respect as 'jee/ji' (suffix) as in 'Please call a taxi for Gupta-ji' (North, West and East India) Use of prefixes 'Shree/Shri'for Mr or 'Shreemati/Shrimati. for Ms/Mrs: Shri Ravi Shankar or Shreemati Das Gupta. Suffixes 'Saahib/Shab' for Mr, and 'Begum' for Mrs (Urdu) . For example, "Welcome to India, Smith-saahib." or "Begum Sahib would like some tea." 'Baba' means 'father 'Wah' expresses admiration, especially in musical settings, as in "Wah! Wah! You play the sitar so well!" Pidging is a context language between two people whose first language is different, but who want to communicate. It is a simplified and reduced form of spoken communication use as a lingua franca. No one speaks it as a native language, it would be learnt additionally. Majorly, it's used by Slave Trade and Coastal Region Trading.
Creole comes from parents who speak Pidgin, they pass it down to their child who would then speak Creole. It is a mother tongue developed from the original Pidgin. Because Pidgin has limited lexis and grammar, Creole is more developed and extends the use of the language. Origins: Seafarers and explorers, later traders, usually a mixture of English, French, and Portuguese
Appeared in print in 1850
Chinese Pronunciation of the word business
Origin of the word is not certain Developmental Stages Social Situation Linguistic Correlation 1
4 Marginal Contact Nativisation Mother Tongue Development Movement toward Standard Language Restricted Pidgin Extended Pidgin Creole Decreolisation Across the Atlantic Seaboard Across the Pacific Seaboard Where major sailing nations have initiated trading with other nations Where the language occurs Theories The Baby-Talk Theory Independent Parallel Development Theory Nautical Jargon Theory Monogenetic/Reflexification Theory Universalist Theory Because Pidgin is similar to child language, some people think it came from this. However, this theory was disregarded because the language is more complex than 'Baby-Talk'. The similarities between Pidgins and Creoles arose on independent but parallel lines due to the fact that they all are derived from languages of Indo-European stock. Furthermore, scholars like Robert Hall specify that the similar social and physical conditions under which pidgins arose were responsible for the development of similar linguistic structures. This theory was disregarded. In many Pidgin and Creole texts, nautical jargon can be seen leading to the theory that because of the Atlantic and Pacific border, people were on ships learning these words. This theory was disregarded because not all Pidgin's went to sea and it does not help to account for the many structural points. According to this view all pidgins can be traced back to a single proto-pidgin, a 15th century Portuguese pidgin (which was itself probably a relic of the medieval lingua franca which was the common means of communication among the Crusaders and traders in the Mediterranean area).
When the Portuguese first sailed down the west coast of Africa in the 15th century they would have used lingua franca. Afterwards in the 16th and 17th centuries when the Portuguese influence in Africa declined, the vocabulary of the then established pidgins would have been replaced by a new colonial language which was dominant in the area, say English or French. As the Portuguese were among the first traders in India and South East Asia the vocabulary of the original Portuguese pidgin was replaced by that of a later European language.
However, the grammatical structure of pidgins would not have been effected by the switch in vocabulary . What this theory does not explain is why the structure should be of the type it is. This is the most recent view on the origin of pidgins and has elements in common with the other theories. However, the distinguishing mark of this theory is that it sees the similarities as due to universal tendencies among humans to create languages of a similar type. Event though Pidgin is the most simple form of language, it is still widely understandable because ti borrows from various sources. The Slave Trade: Transatlantic trading patterns established in mid 17th Century
1619 - Arrival of African Slaves to the Coast of British Colony Virginia
By 1790's - 480,000 people enslaves in British Colonies
1807 - British Government passed an Act of Parliament abolishing slave trade throughout the British Empire
1838 - Slavery persisted until final abolition
1862 - Republican President and abolitionist Abraham Lincoln emancipated blacks in Confederate States of America South
1865 - Emancipation is America
1896 - Supreme Court legalised segregation in Southern States
1945 - Desegregation of American Army
1954 - Segregation in Schools were banned
1955 - Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King protest 1957 - Civil Rights Act, Black people can vote
1960 - Punishment of certain racial crimes
1963 - 'I have a dream' in Washington by Martin Luther King The English-Creole Continuum: - Basilect
-Standard English English Pronoun Change Singular Dual Plural Nominative
Dative ic 'I' me, mec 'me' min 'my' me 'me' wit 'we to' unc 'us two' uncer 'of us two' unc 'us two' we 'we' us 'us' ure 'our us 'us' Old English First Person Pronouns Singular Dual Plural Nominative
Dative u 'you' e, ec 'you' in 'your' e 'you' git 'you two' inc 'you two' incer 'of you two' inc 'you two' ge 'you' eow 'you' eower 'your' eow 'you' Masculine Nominative
Dative he 'he, it' hine his him hit 'it' heo 'she, it' hie hire Old English Second Person Pronouns Old English Third Person Pronouns Neuter Feminine Plural hie 'they' hira him Singular Plural Subject
Possessive I/ich me Min(e)/mi we us ure, our Middle English First Person Pronouns Singular Plural Subject
Possessive u/ thou e/thee in(e)/ i/ thin(e) e/ ye ou/ eu/ you/ iu ur(e)/ your(e) Middle English Second Person Pronouns Singular
Feminine Subject Object hit/it/him him hire/hure/her/heore Possessive his his hir(e)/heore/her(e) Plural Subject Object Possessive here/ air/heore/hore/ ar hit/ it he heo/sche/ho/he/ ho he/hi/ ei/ho/hie/ ai hem/ em/ham/heom/ aim/ ai Middle English Third Person Pronouns Subject Object Possessive First-person singular
Third-person singular I me thee him, it (hit), her my/mine thy/thine his, its (it, his), hers thou he (a), it (hit), she Early Modern English Pronouns First-person plural Second-person plural Third-person plural we ye/you they us you/ye them (hem, em) our/ours your/yours their/theirs A mesolect is somewhere in between. However, because creolisation is a continuum, there is no clear divide between the different forms. Basilect creoles are those which are very deviant from the standard and will have many features which are similar to those found in pidgins - such as regularisation of the verb 'to be', simplification of the pronoun and preposition systems etc. Acrolects are more developed forms of the creole which (perhaps due to increased need for prestige or different purposes) have developed a wider lexicon and features which are closer to the standard. Hypercreolisation: exaggerated form of the creole - this can sometimes be due to creative purposes such as the development of a character in a literature text. Decreolisation: Creole moving into Standard English Black English Origins date back to the Late 17th Century and the colonization of Jamaica by white settlers in Britain. These settlers established plantations growing staple crop such as sugar. The profits of these plantations were built on the use of slave labour imported forcefully from the West Coast of Africa Communication between white master and black slave was conducted by means of a simplified language - Pidgin. This language would have remained fairly rudimentary as long as it served only between a master and slave Although there were many African Languages, they did not survive the transition into slavery, probably because the speakers of the same African language were often separated from each other to prevent a common language leading to rebellion. So, the Pidgin developed into a Creole as slaves used it among themselves, and passed the language onto the next generation. Features: Regularisation of First Person Pronoun / / - /d/ Regularisation of Third Person pronoun Omission of inflectional bound morpheme 's' for plural and possessive Adverbs to indicate tense - 'I went yesterday' 'a' for 'are' Negation through inserting the word 'no' before a verb - 'she noh want it' Multiple negation Reduplication Australian English Australia was discovered by James Cook in 1770
Very little regional dialectal variation
Received Pronunciation was the prestige accent until quite recently
10% - close to RP ('cultivated Australian')
30% - broad Australian
Rest – General Australian (some similarities to London accent) Features: / / is pronounced / / as in 'G'day mate' Question intonation in declarative sentences - High Rise Terminals (or Australian Question Intonation) Vivid idioms - bald as a coot Routine use of swearing Influence of indigenous (Aborigine) people Accent and Dialect Historical factors (Anglo-Saxon tribal regions; North/South split after Viking invasions)
Social factors (age, gender, socio-economic group, occupation, status and prestige, identity…
Regional factors (urban / rural, natural boundaries, etc.)
Language change often creates diversity Why do we have Accents and Dialects? Aiming to alienate others or identify with a certain group Older Generation Living in the area for a long time Low Social Class Lack of education, or left education early Broad Accents Stereotypes: Yorkshire - Honest Brummie + Essex - Dumb Scouse - Untrustworthy Glaswegian - Rough Southern - Posh Welsh - Friendly Most regional drop the /h/ phoneme in initial position, they also omit /g/ from word endings, and use glottal stops. Northern: Same vowel sound in “butter” and “put”
/æ/ (not / /) in “bath” and “grass”, etc.
/ / (not / /) word finally on words like “city”
“Th-fronting”: “fink”, not “ ink”
Dark /l/ (e.g. “footbaw”)
“-ing” becomes “-in”
Some more open and backed vowels (e.g “London”) Cockney: Scottish: Swift pace
Rising intonation at end of sentences
Final consonants emphasised (“name”, “superb”, etc.) Welsh: 'Sing-song' intonation Singaporean English 'lah' - a word for softening, harshening, conversion, reassurance, emphasis. Although lah can appear nearly anywhere, it does not appear with a yes-no question
Singapore English uses about 11 particles, mostly borrowed from Hokkien or Cantonese, to indicate attitude to what is being said. They work rather like you know and you see. The three most common are ah (usually expects agreement), lah (strong assertion) and what (usually corrects something). Phonology: Singapore English does not distinguish between voiced and voiceless fricatives in final position. This affects the /f/ and /v/ phonemes and the / / / / phonemes.
Sometimes, people do not distinguish between voiced and voiceless plosives in final postion, so that sometimes in Singapore 'hop' = 'hob', 'bit' = 'bid, 'back' = 'bag'.
In final position /t/ and /d/ are often a glottal stop. In words like 'think' and 'bath' a /t/ sound is often used. In words like 'then and 'leather' a /d/ is often used.
Traditionally in Singapore English /r/ is pronounced only when it is followed by a vowel. In recent years, however, under the influence of American media, some younger Singaporeans have started to use an /r/ in words like 'heart' and 'port'. You can sometimes hear an /r/ in other places ('farther and mother')!
In words like 'act', 'cast', 'stopped' etc which end with a consonant cluster, the cluster is often reduced (e.g. 'ac', 'cas', 'stop'). Prosodic Features: Singapore English has a distinctive rhythm, which has been described as 'machine gun' style. There is less distinction between stressed and unstressed syllables than in reference varieties of English. It also has its own tunes of speech.