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Blood Circulation And Transport
Transcript of Blood Circulation And Transport
Blood Groups and Their Function
Blood Group, The Donors And The Recipients
Group O Can be O
Group A Can be O or A
Group B Can be O or B
Group AB Can be O, A, B or AB
Handling And Storage Of Blood
The Importance Of Blood Donation
∙ Blood group O is a universal donor. It can be donated to any other blood groups including blood group O.∙
∙Blood group AB is a universal recipient. It can receive blood from any other blood groups including blood group AB.
Blood components and products must be stored within the temperature range specified for that particular component or product.
Whole blood, red cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and platelet concentrates should be stored attemperatures in compliance with the storage temperature requirements, as detailed in the table below.
Blood Component Shelf Life and Storage Temperature Range
Blood component Shelf-life StorageTemperature range Comments
Whole blood (Fresh Unrefrigerated) 24 hours 20–24 ºC
Leucocyte Depleted 42 days with the
appropriate additives 2–6 ºC
Paediatric Leucocyte Depleted 35 days 2–6 ºC
Washed Leucocyte Depleted 28 days if resuspended in
additive solution 2–6 ºC
All blood refrigerators, including theatre and other holding refrigerators, must comply with AS 3864-1997,(1) as amended from time to time.
sh frozen plasma,
12 months At –25 ºC or below
Plasma freezers must comply with AS 3864-1997,(1) as amended from time to
5 days 20–24 ºC
Platelets components must be agitated
and continuously in a single layer on a
Key Points (:
• Red cell components must not exceed 30 minutes at room temperature in each occasion according to the AABB Technical Manual(2)
• Maintain components in a controlled temperature environment until administered
• Handle and store components in a way that minimises the possibility of product tampering
• Alarm set points of components within 0.5 ºC of the storage temperature range
• Keep handling of refrigerated components outside of refrigeration to a minimum to ensure that maximum temperature requirements are not exceeded.
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There are many different systems by which blood is grouped but the ABO system is the best known.
The ABO system classifies the human blood into main four groups called A, B, AB and O.
During a blood transfusion, the donor’s blood must be compatible with the recipient’s blood.
When an incompatible type of blood is transfused, the red blood cells of the donated blood will clump together ( agglutinate) and cause fatal blockages in the recipient’s blood vessels.
Blood group O can safely donate blood, in small quantities, to anyone. People with group O are called universal donors.
Blood group AB can safely receive blood from anyone. Group AB people are called universal recipients.
• To transport nutrients to tissues
• To remove waste products from tissues
• To distribute hormones, enzymes, antibodies & other proteins
Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
• Transport oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body.
• Also carry carbon dioxide from our body cells to our lungs.
White Blood Cells ( leucocytes)
• Protect against diseases and fight infections
• Create antibodies and antitoxins
Platelets ( thrombocytes )
• Play an important role in blood clotting
The Importance of Blood Donation
-There are four types of transfusable products that can be derived from a pint of whole blood: red cells, platelets, plasma and cryoprecipitate. As each pint of donated whole blood is separated into two or three of these products, each donation can help save up to three lives.
-it can help patient with bone marrow transplant
-More than 1 million new people are diagnosed with cancer each year. Many of them will need blood, sometimes daily, during their chemotherapy treatment.
-blood donation can replace the blood after someone has had major blood lose
-patient with anaemia need it to increase iron level
-it can replace blood that has become toxic or diseased
●The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies.
●The antigens are located on the surface of the red blood cells and the antibodies are in the blood plasma.
●Antigens and antibodies are your blood's natural defences against foreign substances. Antibodies recognise anything foreign in your body and alert your immune system so that it can destroy it.
●The blood group you belong to depends on what you have inherited from your parents.
There are 4 major blood groups :
BLOOD GROUP A
BLOOD GROUP B
BLOOD GROUP AB
BLOOD GROUP O