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Famous Scientists Contributing to the Atomic Theory

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Katya P.

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Famous Scientists Contributing to the Atomic Theory

Born: August 26, 1743
Died: May 8, 1794 Born: 460 BC
Died: 370 BC Born: 384 BCE
Died: 322 BC Democritus Aristotle Famous Scientists Contributing
to the Atomic Theory Major contributions to the
Atomic Theory: •Developed a theory that was based on the four elements.
•Aristotle’s theory made an overview off all matter being made of the four elements: fire, water, earth, and air.
•He believed that there were four qualities to these elements: dryness, hotness, coldness, and moistness. Major Contributions to the
Atomic Theory: •Called the father of modern chemistry
•Discovered that water is made of hydrogen and oxygen
•In 1774, he invented the analytical balance and showed that chemical elements were neither created or destroyed, but combined into different compounds in chemical reactions.
•Also discovered the Law of Conservation of Mass; if matter changes its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Major contributions to the atomic theory:

•He was an influential philosopher and scholar of Leucippus, who formulated an atomic theory for the universe.
Stated that: "Everything is composed of atoms, atoms are indestructible; have always and will always be, in motion; there are an infinite number and kinds of atoms, which differ in shape, and size." Antoine Lavoisier John Dalton Born: September 6, 1766
Died: July 27, 1844 Major contributions to the atomic theory: •Dalton printed his first published table of relative atomic weights in 1803.
•Six elements hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus appear in this table.
•Believed that all atoms of a given element are identical, elements are made of particles called atoms, and atoms cannot be created or destroyed. Born: February 8, 1834
Died: February 2, 1907 Dmitri Mendeleev •Invented the periodic table of elements in the 1869.
•Element 101 Md (Mendelevium) is named after him.
•Found that if you arrange the elements in order of increasing atomic mass, their chemical properties demonstrate definite trends. Major contributions to the atomic theory: Born: December 18, 1856
Died: August 30, 1940 J.J. Thompson Major contributions to the atomic theory: •In 1897, he discovered the electron in a series of experiments designed to study the nature of electric discharge in a high-vacuum cathode-ray tube.
•Stated that the deflection of the rays by electrically charged plates and magnets had “bodies much smaller than atoms." Born: August 30, 1871
Died: October 19, 1937 Ernest Rutherford Born: November 23, 1887
Died: August 10, 1915 Henry Moseley Born: October 7, 1885
Died: November 18, 1962 Neils Bohr Major contributions to the
atomic theory: •Known as the father of nuclear physics.
•Discovered the concept of radioactive half life.

In 1911, he predicted that atoms have their positive charge concentrated in a small nucleus and the Rutherford model was born through his discovery of Rutherford scattering in his gold foil experiment. •Known for his establishment for the scientific basis of the Periodic Table of the Elements by sorting chemical elements by the order of their atomic numbers.

•In 1913, Moseley observed and measured the X-ray of various chemical elements obtained by diffraction in crystals. He discovered a logical relation between wavelength and atomic number and it became known as Moseley’s law.

•Moseley is also known for the development of early X-ray spectrometry equipment. Major contributions to the atomic theory: Major contributions to the atomic theory: •In 1922, Bohr applies quantum theory to Rutherford’s atomic structure by assuming that electrons travel in stationary orbits defined by their angular momentum.

•Calculated possible energy levels for these orbits and guessed that the emission of light occurs when an electron moves into a lower energy orbit.

•Developed his model in 1913
Born: August 12, 1887
Died: January 4, 1961
Erwin Schrodinger Major contributions to the atomic theory: In 1926, he used mathematical equations to describe chance of finding an electron in a certain position. This atomic model is known as the quantum mechanical model of the atom. Born: October 20, 1891
Died: July 24, 1974
James Chadwick Major contributions to the atomic theory: •Discovered the neutron in 1932.
•James's discovery was vital for understanding the nuclear fission of uranium 235.
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