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US History - 7.1 - 7.2 - 7.3 - 7.4 - Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism

USH 7.1 through 7.4


on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of US History - 7.1 - 7.2 - 7.3 - 7.4 - Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism

2. The Cherokee
Sued the state govt. and won in the Supreme Court
Jackson vowed to ignore the ruling
3. The Trail of Tears
1835, the Cherokee gave in, signed a treaty
17,000 refused to honor
1838 Gen. Winfield Scott with 7,000 troops forced them to leave
Marched in brutal weather west
Thousands died
C. Removal of Native Americans cont.
2. The Monroe Doctrine
1810 Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican Revolution
Won independence in 1821
Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin led many nations to freedom
Brazil gained independence in 1822
European nations threatened the new nations
1823, Western hemisphere is closed to further colonization
It is America’s sphere of influence
B. Nationalism cont.
A. Another Revolution Affects America
Mass production: goods made in large quantities
Led to the Industrial Revolution
1. Great Britain Starts a Revolution
Very guarded about their industry
2. The Industrial Revolution in America
Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812 made Americans try to produce their own goods
What factors led to the growth of the U.S. economy in the early 1800s? (economic system, inventions, new manufacturing methods). How did this affect the American’s lived and worked?
How did the cotton gin revive slavery in the South? How did it change the way southerners farmed?
What did the Monroe Doctrine say? Could America effectively uphold this doctrine in the early 1800s? Explain. Why is the doctrine still important today?
How did the issue of tariffs almost split the country and send into a civil war? Why was the issue of nullification so critical in keeping the country together?
What did the U.S. government do to the “Five Civilized Tribes”? How did the Cherokee try to resist and what eventually happened to their people? 
How did Jackson’s opposition to the Bank of the U.S. affect the election of 1832? What did his opponents hope to do by making Jackson veto the charter and what actually happened?
Martin Van Buren elected over the Whig party
1. Jackson’s Legacy
Pet banks were corrupt and failed
Two months after inauguration, depression hit the economy
Buren: Laissez-faire
It would fix itself
Est. the federal treasury
Criticism split the Democratic Party
C. Van Buren Deals with Jackson’s Legacy
3. South Carolina Rebels
1832, Congress passed a lower tariff
Protests still raging
S.C. passed the Nullification Act
Threatened to secede
Jackson helped Clay pass a compromise
1833 Force Bill, President could send troops to enforce federal laws
S.C. nullified it
They claimed a victory because the tariff was altered
A. Tariffs and States’ Rights cont.
A. A Tariff Raises the States’ Rights Issue
1828, Congress passed a high tariff
1. The Nullification Theory
The Tariff of Abominations
VP Calhoun argued states could nullify it
Some wanted secession
Nullification had the potential to destroy the union
2. Jackson Takes a Stand
No one was sure of his views
1830, at a state’s rights dinner
Jackson, “Our federal union… must be preserved
Calhoun doesn’t run for the VP again and returns to the Senate
IV. States’ Rights and the National Bank
4. Native American Resistance
1832, Chief Black Hawk led the Sauk and Fox to retake Illinois
State militia ended it
The Seminole Wars
Osceola led them
1835, joined forces with African Americans
Used guerilla tactics
Dade Massacre killed almost 100 men
By 1842, 1,500 Americans killed in the Seminole wars
Seminoles were allowed to stay
The only tribe to win
Gave up 100 million acres for $68 million and 32 million acres
Force to live in Okla., adapt to plains group’s way of life
C. Removal of Native Americans cont.
2. Spoils System
Put people who helped him into govt. jobs
To the victor goes the spoils
Fired about 10% of federal employees and replaced them with allies
His friends were his main advisors
His “kitchen cabinet”
B. Jackson’s New Presidential Style cont.
1. Jackson’s Appeal to the Common Citizen
Big inauguration party
20,000 ruffians, bathtubs of OJ and whiskey, and Jackson escaping through a window
“Old Hickory”
Lived the Am. Dream
Orphaned at age of 14, veteran of Am. Rev.
Killed a man in a duel over a slur against his wife, fought in 13 duels
Survived the 1st assassination attempt
Pet Parrot swore, a lot, had to be removed from his funeral
Last public party featured a 1400 lb wheel of cheese
Ate in 2 hours
“Equal protection and equal benefits”
B. Jackson’s New Presidential Style
The Adams Presidency
Never escaped the “corrupt bargain”
Policies ran against public opinion, stronger fed. Govt.
2. Democracy and Citizenship
Voting requirements were eased
Three times as many people voted as the last election
The Election of 1828
Jackson supporters formed the Democratic-Rep. or the Democrats
Adams: Natl. Republicans
Mudslinging, slogans, rallies, and buttons introduced to campaigning
Attacks on Adams’ character and Jackson’s wife
Jackson Triumphs
John C. Calhoun VP
Landslide victory
A. Expanding Democracy cont.
2. The Missouri Compromise
1820 Missouri wants to join the Union
A slave state
Would upset the balance of power
Maine applied too
MO: Slave
ME: Free
Slavery banned north of the 36°30’ N parallel
C. American Pushes West cont.
1. Expansion in the West
New states being added
Communities along major waterways
People often settled as communities
Backwards lifestyles often
Few modern conveniences
C. America Pushes West
John Quincy Adams guided American Foreign Policy
1. Territory and Boundaries
1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty disarmed the Great Lakes
Convention of 1818 disarmed the 49th parallel as the Canada-U.S. border
Americans can settle Oregon
1818 Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish East FLA and took forts to stop Seminole raids
Adams-Onis Treaty 1819
U.S. got FLA for $5 million and gave up claims to Texas
Agreed on a border to the Pacific
U.S. a transcontinental power now
B. Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy
A. The Supreme Court Boosts National Power
Chief Justice John Marshall
Gibbons v. Ogden ruled that Congress had power over interstate commerce
1. Strengthening Govt. Economic Control
McCulloch v. Maryland
National govt. was supported over state govts.
Maryland tried to tax the Bank of U.S.
2. Limiting State Powers
Marshall did this several times
II. Nationalism at Center Stage
2. Tariffs and the National Bank
British goods were much cheaper than American ones
Tariffs encouraged people to buy American
Madison proposed the Tariff of 1816
Would help pay for internal improvements
Southerners and Westerners opposed it
Clay and Calhoun helped pass it
2nd Bank of the U.S. was chartered in 1816
1816, James Monroe was elected President
Ushered in the Era of Good Feelings
No political divisions, extreme patriotism, and economic growth
Toured the nation to warm-welcomes
Won every electoral vote but one in 1820
3. New England Industrializes
Used rivers for power
Used southern cotton for textiles
Govt. encouraged growth with capitalism and free enterprise
Samuel Slater memorized plans
Set up factory in Rhode Island
1814 Francis Cabot Lowell put all stages of textiles in one building
Factory System
2. Harrison and Tyler
1840, William Henry Harrison vs. Van Buren
“Tippecanoe and Tyler too”
Log cabin campaign for Harrison
Harrison won and was inaugurated in 1841
Cold, rainy day: wore no coat, gave longest inauguration speech
Died a month later of pneumonia
John Tyler didn’t follow the Whig party
Expelled from the party for stopping a new Bank of U.S.
Called “His Accidency”
Whigs voted on sectional ties
Killed the party
C. Van Buren cont.
Southeast, “Five Civilized Tribes”
Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw
Whites wanted to remove them west of the Mississippi
Jackson supported this
1. Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, gave payments for Native to move to Okla.
C. Removal of Native Americans
A. Expanding Democracy
1. Tension Between Adams and Jackson
The Election of 1824
Four republican candidates
William Crawford
Andrew Jackson
Henry Clay
John Quincy Adams
All favorite sons of their states
Striking a Bargain
Jackson won the popular vote
No majority in the electoral college
Election went to the House
Henry Clay influenced voters to pick Adams
He became Sec. of State
“Corrupt Bargain”
III. The Age of Jackson
Proposed originally by Madison in 1815
Develop transportation and internal improvements
Establish a protective tariff
Resurrect the national bank
Thought it would unite the nation
1. Erie Canal and Other Internal Improvements
Toll roads (turnpikes)
Corduroy roads
1818, the National Road opened after 12 years of delays
Extended to Illinois in 1838
Erie Canal
363 miles w/ locks
Opened on Oct. 26, 1825
Did not allow steamboats at first
Canal building boom
By 1850, 3,600 miles of canals
1. Agriculture in the North
Raised one or two crops to sustain the family
Like corn and cattle
2. Cotton is King in the South
Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney, 1793 patent
Could clean cotton 50 times faster
Plantations began to grow in number
3. Slavery Becomes Entrenched
Slavery booms
1790 to 1820, production of cotton grows 100 times bigger
1808, 250,000 slaves were brought to America
The same number as were brought from 1619 to 1776
1. Jackson Opposes the Bank
Nicholas Biddle, bank pres. wanted to recharter the bank early
If Jackson vetoed, it would hurt reelection
If not, Bank continues
New Charter in 1832 by Clay and Webster
Jackson vetoed it
2. The Election of 1832
The people loved it and reelected him easily
Jackson took all govt. money out, the Bank closed
Put money in Pet Banks
Jackson never incurred a debt in office
3. Whig Party forms
Clay, Adams, and Webster formed a new party to counter Jackson
B. Jackson Attacks the National Bank
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