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Transcript of Magnetic Levitation
thus reducing the rate of air pollution per year? My Hypothesis I believe that using magnetic levitation to power vehicles (such as cars) can reduce the amount of CO2 in our atmosphere, thus reducing the rate of air pollution per year, because if a car idles for 10 minutes, it is emitting about 10 ounces of carbon dioxide. However, if the world used magnetic levitation, then cars would use CO2 only to move, which means that idling with your car on wouldn't hurt the environment as much My Research Running vehicles have a direct effect on the increasing amount of CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere. Having a surplus of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to holes in the ozone layer Holes in the ozone layer cause the sun's harmful UV radiation waves to directly hit the Earth, causing it to heat up. The heating up of the Earth is global waming. So, running vehicles is one of the many factors that is causing global warming If magnetic levitation was used to work cars, then... 1) a car's engine wouldn't have to use as much CO2 (because you need more CO2 for regular cars because you have to use more force because of the friction between the wheels and the road 2) cars can move much faster because they won't encounter friction (just air resistance) 3) a car would take less time to make (the manufacturers wouldn't need to make as big of an engine + you wouldn't have to add wheels) 4) cars wouldn't need as much gas, because when cars aren't running, they will not be wasting gas About Me Hi! I am an eighth grader from McPherson Magnet School, in Orange CA. I am very much interested in global warming (climate change) and air pollution, and that is why I chose this science fair project; to try to do something to change it.
Global warming (aka climate change) is slowly changing our planet every single year. It is caused by greenhouse gases that trap heat from the sun in the earth's atmosphere. When the gases trap the heat, it cannot get back out, so it heats the earth up. It harms people, animals, and plants. Some living things can't adapt to the change in weather, so they do not survive.
One day, it may be us that might not be able to
adapt. Global Warming Greenhouse gases are the gases that trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Some greenhouse gases are naturally emitted, but some are produced from just human activities. Greenhouse gases aren't all bad though; without them, the earth would be too cold to live on. However, if there are too many greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (like an extensive amount of carbon dioxide), then it will create a shield-type cover around the earth that will let in more heat than it lets out. Because of this, the earth heats up, and it hurts many living things.
Greenhouse Gases ex. Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Fluorinated Gases burning one gallon of gas creates 20 pounds of carbon dioxide Did you know? I didn’t really know how to put my idea of global warming into a science fair project, but while I was browsing websites I came across a question that involved magnetic levitation, which I never really experimented on before. So, I used that question, “Can you make a magnetic levitation train?” and changed it into the question I have now because I wanted to see if I could somehow use magnetic levitation to power everyday vehicles, such as cars, to help reduce the growing problem of air pollution.
If I were somehow to win, then I would use the scholarship money to go to a good science and technology college. With the knowledge that I receive, I might be able to do extraordinary things; who knows? Maybe there may be a car invented that uses magnetic levitation that everyday citizens could afford! What about the magnets? When mining, there is a consumption and flaring of fossil fuels, which emits carbon dioxide. In 2006, 5,902.75 million metric tons of carbon dioxide was emitted (from fossil fuels) in the United States alone. So, even though using magnetic levitation to power cars might reduce air pollution, the process of creating the cars and mining the magnets to use on the roads + vehicles could create more carbon dioxide than we could ever erase. materials: procedure Pieces of poster board
A rectangular 3-D shape with no top to put the bar magnets in (I used half of a small cassette case) Width=2 5/8" Length=3 1/2" Depth=1/2"
Two 3/8" x 3/8" x 1-7/8" bar magnets
20 small magnets (size can vary)
Two long L rods, size depending on how long your track is
Optional - something to decorate your car with (I used an old play train) The Track:
1) Cut out a base for your track to sit on. You could use an empty box with no lid, or made one out of the poster board. The size depends on how long you want your track to be.
2) As soon as you have a base, cut out a piece of poster board that could be used as a lid to your base
3) Next, measure out the center of the piece of the poster board just cut. About an inch to the left of that, draw a line from top to bottom
3) About an inch to the right of the center of the poster board, draw another line from top to bottom.
4) Next, make sure that all your magnets have the same poles faced upward. (when doing step 6, make sure the same pole is on the tops of all the magnets)
5) Now, cut out holes that are the same size as the small magnets. Make sure that the magnets can stay in with tape. 10 holes should be cut on each side, and the holes should all line up with each other.
6) Place the magnets into the holes and tape them in.
7) Then, place the poster board with the holes + magnets onto your base, and attach with tape.
8) Finally, take the two L shaped rods, and attach them on top of the magnets so that a track formed between them, and, on both rods, make sure that there is one leg that is attached to the poster board. Data/Observations The experiment was conducted this way so that I could prove that magnetic levitation does work and that is could be used at a larger scale, using real cars, larger magnets, etc. The data comes from research off of many different sites. I read that the total amoutn of carbon dioxide emitted around the world (in 2008) was about 29,400 million metric tons, which is about 1,000 million metric tons less than now. I am mentioning this because this is showing that the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere is slowly but surely going up. By 2030, there may be more damage than we could ever repair. Some people, when they think of magnets, think of rare-earth-metal magnets. However, instead of mining for those precious (not to mention rare) magnets, the world could use electromagents. An electromagnet is created when someone runs electricity through a wire to create a magnetic field. However, this magnetic field only exists when electric current if flowing. If fossil fuels were used for this electricity, then there would be CO2 going up into the atmosphere. Instead, electric current could be created from solar panels, meaning that the electricity will be pure and emit no CO2. After researching, I found out that if we were to reduce the CO2 emitted from cars by half, it wouldn't change the carbon dioxide levels by very much at first. However, I believe that, after a couple years, there will be a significant difference in CO2 emitted per year. There are variables, like the chance that industries may suddenly double or triple their factories, thus emitted more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Experiment Conclusion My conclusion is that you may actually be able to create a maglev car (one that is magnetically levitated/operated) and be able to help the growing problems of global warming, air pollution, rising CO2 levels, etc. This conclusion proves my hypothesis true, that magnetic levitation can be used in cars. I could have improved my experiment by going to different car companies and actually asking them what they thought about using magnetic levitation in their cars. The experiment did go as planned, showing a model of a car moving after applying force to it. What I learned did actually lead me to a new question; how many people know about the growing problems of global warming? Do they know how much driving is contributing to it? These questions would be important and useful because if the world knew about global warming, then there might be a lot more effort put in to stop it. It would be interesting because I didn't know a lot about global warming, and I was really surprised to see what the actual numbers were, and I bet other people would be too. Another question raised was whether or not people would actually buy and use the magnetic levitation cars. This would be useful because what would the use be if the world created a car that used magnetic levitation, but no one used it? It wouldn't help at all. things that i've learned... Did you know...? The US is the 2nd top CO2 emitter in the world (China is #1) The world as a whole emits about 29-30 million metric tons of carbon dioxide each year Transportation is one of the biggest emitters of CO2, second only to industries and factories The amount of CO2 that is emitted from cars per year (314 million metric tons) is the amount of carbon in a coal train 55,000 miles long, and enough to circle the world twice!!! The Car:
I used half of a small cassette case as my base.
1) Take the two bar magnets and tape them on the inside of the base of your car, each one on opposite side in the middle of the length of the base
(Make sure that the poles facing down off of the bar magnets are the same, and that they are the same/repel the magnets in the track)
2) Cut out a piece of poster board that fits inside the base, covering up the magnets.
Optional) If you want, you can use something like a train model to put on top of your car. Just cut a hole in the poster board and stick it in
3) Put the piece of poster board into the base, and you are done with your car.