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An overview of the three energy systems, St Helena S.C

David Black

on 7 March 2014

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Transcript of ENERGY SYSTEMS

Anaerobic Glycolysis
Features of the ATP-PC energy systm
Used in extremely short duration (7 seconds) high intensity activities
Supplies ATP at the quickest rate
Has the smallest ATP supply
To replenish the ATP-PC system to 50% 30 seconds rest is required or for 100% replenishment 3-5 minutes of rest
FEatures of the Anaerobic Glycolyssis ystem
Used in short duration 10-45 sec, high intensity activities
Supplies ATP quickly (but not as fast a rate as the ATP-CP energy system)
Has a limited capacity to supply ATP (but bigger than than ATP-PC energy system)
Features of the aerobic energy system
Supplies ATP at the slowest rate
Has a huge (nearly unlimited) supply of ATP
Used in endurance events
What's an energy system?
A way of supplying energy to meet your body's needs
What has this got to d0 with PE?
We use energy in sport. Who can give an example of when energy is used in sport?
How many systems are there and what exactly do they do?
There are three energy systems and they all do the same thing, supply our body with ATP?
ATP stands for Adenosine Tri Phosphate - it is the stuff our bodies use to produce energy for everything
Each body function requires energy.

A chemical compound called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) provides the energy.

ATP is stored in the muscles in small amounts, so muscular contraction can only reoccur as long as the ATP is being replenished.

The energy required to join the Pi back to the ADP to form ATP can come from the breakdown of:

1) A chemical fuel – Creatine Phosphate (CP)

2) Food Fuels:
Carbohydrates (primary source of fuel for energy)•
Fats (secondary source)
Protein (last resort energy source)

Energy is required to join the Pi back onto the ADP to form ATP.
Adenosine Triphosphate
Energy is released for muscular contraction
Adenosine Di-Phosphate
Pi breaks off
Three energy systems
An energy system can be categorised as either:

“O2” independent

Does not require oxygen

“O2” dependent

Requires oxygen

- ATP-PC energy system

- Anaerobic Glycolysis energy system

- Aerobic energy system
Energy for muscular contraction which allows the body to move is produced either
via three energy systems.

There are two anaerobic systems-
ATP-PC energy system
and Anaerobic Glycolysis energy

And one- A
erobic energy system
All three systems are activated at the start of exercise, with their relative contribution being determined by the intensity and duration of exercise.

It is crucial to understand that the three systems do not function or operate independently of each other.

Virtually all physical activities will derive some energy from each of the three energy systems
Energy for movement is obtained from the breakdown of ATP in muscle producing ADP and P (free phosphate molecule). This system is the most rapid source of ATP as it uses both ATP and CP already stored in the muscle
The most rapid reformation of ADP to ATP occurs when using energy that is released from the breakdown of CP in the muscle. The main disadvantage of this system is that after 5-6secs, CP stores in the muscle are depleted by @ 50%.
Quickest of all systems
Dominant system for the first 10 seconds of high intensity exercise
Used in fast, powerful movements (95% of Max HR)
Food fuel:  None, PC is not a food fuel.
Fuel source: Creatine Phosphate (PC/CP)
Energy Output (Yield): 1 ATP molecule from each PC molecule
Energy system dominance: 1-10 seconds
Peak power output: 3-5 seconds
This system involves more complex chemical reactions that break down muscle glycogen stores to release energy via the process of anaerobic glycolysis. This results in the production of lactic acid

Predominant energy supplier in events 85% max HR eg. 200m sprint
Food fuel:  Carbohydrates
Fuel source Glucose/Glycogen
Energy Output (Yield): 2 ATP molecule from each glucose molecule
Energy system dominance: 10-45 seconds
Peak power output: 10-15 seconds
This system is broken down into 3 stages that provide energy for ATP resynthesis from ADP + P using CHO and fats breakdown

It uses oxygen to produce ATP and can supply the most out of all energy systems

However, this system is the slowest and the process to break down CHO & fats takes time
Dominant provider of ATP for extended endurance activities below 85% of Max HR
Produces much more energy than the anaerobic systems
Becomes major contributor once the anaerobic glycolysis system decreases and becomes depeleted.
Major contributor in prolonged exercise (over 75sec) eg. Endurance events.
Aerobic system does contribute in maximal intensity exercise (Eg. Between 55-65% in 800m).
Usually <80% Max HR
Food intake:  Carbohydrates, fats and protein.
Fuel source: Glucose/Glycogen, fats, FFA (Free fatty acids), protein

Energy system dominance: 60 seconds +
Peak power output: 1-2 minutes
Energy Output (Yield): 36-38 ATP molecule from each glucose molecule
Energy system interplay
The three energy systems do not turn on and off like a traffic light.
All activities use some energy from all three systems.

The energy systems overlap – they never work independently.

It it’s the relative contribution of each system that varies.
Energy is needed for maintenance, growth, everyday activities and exercise. The amount of energy required during exercise by the body depends on the intensity and duration of exercise.
Without this system activities with explosive powerful movements would not be possible EG short sprints, field events, tennis serve, volleyball spike or rebounding
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