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Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

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Lauren Hudson

on 25 September 2014

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Transcript of Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

Heilman, M. E., & Chen, J. J. (2005). "Same Behavior, different Consequences: Reactions to Men's and Women's Altruistic Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 431 - 441.
Applying Social Psychology to the Workplace

The Importance Of Work And The Benefits People Get From It
Many people identify with their work because they spend so much of their waking lives at work making it a central focus.
Work is important because it provides many things people need and want.
Two Most Commonly Studied Work Attitudes
Attitudes at work greatly depend upon a persons satisfaction with their job, pay and benefits, their coworkers and supervisors, the opportunity for advancement, working conditions and their job security.
Job Satisfaction
Flexible working hours
Professional growth opportunities
Interesting work
Autonomy on the job
Job security
A good supervisor
Good benefits
Competitive pay opportunities for promotion
Technological knowledge
By Lauren Hudson and Kim Brosco
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) aka Pro-social behaviors
The two most commonly studied work attitudes are:
Job Satisfaction
Organizational Commitment
Extra-role behaviors not specifically required by the job and also not usually evaluated by employers during performance appraisals.

Behaviors that go above and beyond job duties or expectations.
* staying late to finish a project
* mentoring a new employee
* volunteering for work
*helping a coworker

Organizational Withdrawal and Counterproductive Behaviors
Work for pay - provides us with money necessary to provides us with (basic needs):
Food
Shelter
Security
Extra spending money
The Importance Of Work And The Benefits People Get From It
The Importance Of Work And The Benefits People Get From It - continued..
Work also provides:
Social interactions (friendships)
Independence
Sense of accomplishment
Satisfaction
A reason for being
Happiness
Sense of identity
Recognition
Respect
Organizational Commitment
Affective Commitment - An employee's emotional attachment to the organization that makes the employee want to stay in the organization.

Normative Commitment - A commitment to the organization based on feelings of obligation.

Continuance Commitment - Commitment that results when an employee remains with a company because of the high cost of losing organizational membership including monetary and social costs.

Learning Objective # 1
Summarize why work is an important part
of life for many people and what benefits
people get from work.
Learning Objective # 4
Describe the two most commonly studied
work attitudes, and explain how they
impact job performance.
How do Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
impact job performance?
Job satisfaction:
Means the difference between staying at a job or leaving.
makes the difference in a successful versus unsuccessful employer-employee relationship and ultimately a profitable business.
Organizational Commitment:
Directly related to employee retention within an organization.
High employee turn-over makes others less committed.
Layoff-survivors are less committed.

Learning Objective # 6
Contrast organizational citizenship
with organizational withdrawal and
counter-productive behaviors.
Organizational Withdrawal
Behaviors employees use to avoid their work or their job.

2 Components of organizational withdrawal
Work withdrawal
~ Behaviors employees engage in to avoid their work and work tasks. (Absenteeism, leaving work early, arriving to work late, missing meetings, using work equipment for personal use without permission.)
Job withdrawal
~Includes behaviors employees use to remove themselves from the job itself. (Quitting , transferring to another department within an organization, retiring.)

Counterproductive Behaviors
Any intentional behavior on the part of an organizational member viewed by the organization as contrary to its legitimate interests. (Intentional violation of safety procedures, theft, destruction of property, misuse of information, misuse of time and resources, unsafe behavior, poor attendance, poor quality work, alcohol use, drug use, and inappropriate physical actions.)


Contrasting
Organizational Citizenship
Organizational Withdrawal and Counterproductive Behaviors
Job satisfaction
Jobs high in autonomy
Positive organizational culture
Employees high in agreeableness
Employees high in conscientiousness
Men are viewed positively
Women are viewed as just doing their jobs (results in gender disparity in ratings of performance)
Destruction of property
Misuse of information
Misuse of time and resources
Inappropriate physical actions
Missing meetings
Using work equipment for personal use without permission
&
Quitting
Transferring
Retiring
Absenteeism
Leaving Early
Arriving Late
Unsafe behavior
Poor attendance
Poor quality work
Alcohol use
Drug use
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Social Psychology Concepts with Learning Objective # 1

1970s - Arthur Friedman - manager / business owner told employees:
Work the hours you want to
Set your own wages
Take vacation time when you want to
Help yourselves to petty cash if you need spending money
A month later, employees acted: (all received what they asked for)
Many asked for $50 or $60 more per week
A truck driver asked for $100 more per week (He was a mediocre employee who didn't feel like he was being paid what he deserved. When his pay increased, so did his motivation and performance.
A service man making less than the others said he didn't care because he didn't want to work that hard.
Attitudes, Freedom of Action, Planning, Beliefs and Consistency, Putting People First, Trust, Deliberate Mind
Self, Self-Esteem, Self-Presentation, Social Learning Theory, Person Perception, Reciprocity, Cooperation, Automatic and Deliberate Mind
Social Psychology Concepts
(cont.)
Arthur's experiment worked.
Art signed Union contracts without reading them
Employees didn't quit
Employees didn't steal from the company
Absenteeism was low
Employees were happy, motivated, did good work
Net profit increased under his leadership
Company was a success
Employees realized that to make the organization work and remain in business they had to be reasonable in their requests and behavior.
(Social Conscience, Self, Self-Esteem, Self-Presentation, Social Learning Theory, Person Perception, Beliefs, Reciprocity, Cooperation, Automatic and Deliberate Mind)
Ego-States
Story in text about Arthur Friedman from (C1 - C2):
Koughan, M. (1975, February 23). "Arthur Friedman's Outrage: Employees Decide Their Pay". Washington Post.
Parent:
Arthur giving employees control over themselves
Adult:
The employees took ownership of their work, worked better, worked more, knew not to ask for too much, increased profits.
Child:
Took a month to decide whether Arthur (Parent) was serious or not, or going to punish them for being bad and asking for more because they're not happy with what they have.
Social Psychology Concepts with Learning Objective # 4
Social Psychology Concepts
(cont.)
Ego-States
Social Psychology Concepts with Learning Objective # 6
Social Psychology Concepts
(Cont.)
Ego-States
Breathe a sigh of relief...
Lauren and Kim are finally done!
Job Satisfaction: Art Friedman's employee who asked for $100 raise.
"Once he received the pay increase he thought he deserved, he became an excellent employee who put forth more effort and time in his job. In order for him to perform better he needed to be compensated better. This illustrates equity theory wherein an emplyee compares his inputs to his outcomes. "
Equity Theory (employee compares inputs to outcomes.)
Parent:
Employee with Normative Commitment - feels obligated to stay.
Adult:
Employee with Affective Commitment - puts forth more effort and time.
Child:
Employee with Continuance Commitment - I have to stay here because there isn't anything better.
Withdrawal behaviors - I'm not doing well because they don't pay me what I'm worth.
Adams, J.S. (1965). "Inequity in Social Change." In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 2 pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.
Organizational Commitment
Affective commitment: Attitudes, Social Exchange Theory, Beliefs and Consistency, Putting People First, Trust, Automatic Mind: I like it here, I'm staying.
Normative Commitment: Attribution Theory, Social Exchange Theory.
Continuance Commitment: Self-Serving Bias, Cost/Benefit Analysis, Social Exchange Theory, Deliberate Mind: I have to stay.
"Meyer and Herscovitch argue that employees have an organizational commitment profile at any given time in their job with varying levels on each of the three types of commitment." (C20)
Meyer, J.P. & Herscovitch, L. (2001). "Commitment in the Workplace: Toward a General Model." Human Resource Management Review, 11, 299-326.
Cooperation, Self, Self-Esteem, Social Learning Theory, Self-Presentation Theory, Self-Regulation Theory, Person Perception, Automatic Mind
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Attribution Theory, Self-Esteem (or lack of), Self-Regulation, Freedom of Action, Emotion, Mood, Attitudes
Organizational Withdrawal & Counterproductive Behaviors
Suggested Solutions To Unresolved Problems
Employers should evaluate work environment and make modifications where they see fit to ensure that they have employees who are satisfied, committed, experience low stress levels, and have a positive perception of the organization.

Employees have to learn to seek work that is satisfying to them and organizations that they can be committed to.

Employees need to either manage their stress or seek a less stressful work environment.
"They have been described as behaviors that go beyond what is expected by the leaders of the organization. " (C23).
"Men who engage in OCBs are viewed positively, whereas women are viewed as just doing their jobs - a difference that may result in gender disparity in the ratings of performance." (C23 - C24)
Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). "Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 911 - 926.
Parent:
Organization Citizenship Behaviors/ Prosocial Behaviors
Adult:
Organization Citizenship Behaviors / Prosocial Behaviors
Child:
Organizational Withdrawal and Counterproductive Behaviors
Full transcript