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A Song of Ice and Fire

A spoiler-free presentation of geography, culture, history and people of the world of A Song of Ice and Fire by George R. R. Martin.
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on 13 March 2014

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Transcript of A Song of Ice and Fire

A Song of Ice and Fire
The Known History
12500 years
The Dawn Age,
The Age of Heroes,
The Andal Invasion,
Age of Valyria,
Targaryen Dynasty,
Robert's Rebellion and after.
The Dawn Age
Before the coming of men:
Children of the Forest,
giants and
magical creatures.
12000 BL: First Men come to Westeros via Dorne.
They fight the Children of the Forest.
10000 BL: the Children and the First Men sign the Pact

The First Men live on the coastland, high plains, meadows and mountains.
The Children live in the forests.

The First Men adopt the Old Gods of the Forest.
The Age of Heroes
The period of peace between the First Men and the Children.
8000 BL:
The Long Night (the longest winter in the known history) and the invasion of Others, defeated by Azor Ahai.
Founding of the Wall by Brandon the Builder, a Stark who is also the first King in the North.
Rise of the Night's King, the 13th Lord Commander of the Night's Watch, defeated by the Starks and Joramun, the King Beyond the Wall (awakens giants).
The Andal Invasion
6000 BL:
The Andals from the Andalos Hills in Essos invade the Westeros via the Vale.
They defeat the joint forces of the First Men and the Children pushing them to the North which they cannot conquer.
The Children gradually leave the kingdom of Men retreating to the forest of the land Beyond the Wall.
Age of Valyria
5000 BL: Rise of Valyrian Freehold due to the taming of the dragons and the conquest of Ghiscar.

Over the centuries, the Valyrian Freehold expands.
Around 700 BL, the Rhonyar are defeated and Nymeria, a warrior princess, leads them to Dorne, where she marries Mors Martell establishing his rule.
Around 500 BL, the hidden city of Braavos is formed, since all of the other Free Cities are under Valyrian rule.
The Doom of Valyria
In 100 BL: Valyria is destroyed by volcanic eruptions and other uncertain happenings, called the Doom.
The Targaryens take refuge on a small island on the coast of Westeros, later to be known as Dragonstone.
Targaryen Dynasty
The Ghiscari regain their former power, the cities of the Slavers Bay and the Free Cities prosper, Braavos reveals itself becoming the most powerful among them.
The War of Conquest: 1 AL, King Aegon I Targaryen conquers Westeros, diminishing or destroying the Kings of 6 of the Seven Kingdoms and establishing new Lords,
Dorne remains unconquered.
The Dance of Dragons (129 - 137 AL): the first civil war that results in the death of all dragons making them extinct and weakening the magic to the point of extinction.
The conquest of Dorne (157 - 161 AL) by Daeron I, though he was unable to hold it. Dorne formally joins the Seven Kingdoms by marriage in 197 AL.
2 Blackfyre rebellions, both unsuccessful.
The War of the Ninepenny Kings, resulting in the final extinction of the Blackfyre family.
The Defiance of Duskendale, resulting in imprisonment of the King and allegedly causing his madness.
Robert's Rebellion
Rhaegar Targaryen kidnaps Lyanna Stark. After an uproar by the Stark family, the Mad King burns the father and their eldest son. Aerys demands the heads of Robert Baratheon and Eddard Stark from their ward, Jon Arryn.

Houses Arryn, Stark, Baratheon and Tully rebel against the King. The rebel army defeats the royalists at the Battle of the Trident. Prince Rhaegar is killed.

The Lannisters sack the King's Landing. King Aerys is killed by Jaime Lannister. The Targaryen family is brutally murdered - all but Prince Viserys and Princess Daenerys, who are carried to safety.

Robert becomes King of the Seven Kingdoms, marrying Cersei Lannister.
Robert's reign
Greyjoy rebellion (289 AL), resulting in death of Lord Greyjoys oldest sons and capturing of the youngest - Theon and giving him as a ward to Lord Stark.
282-283 AL
The Books Begin
A Game of Thrones (AGoT)
A Clash of Kings (ACoK)
A Storm of Swords (ASoS)
Steel and Snow
Blood and Gold
A Feast for Crows (AFfC)
A Dance with Dragons (ADwD)
The Winds of Winter (TWoW)
A Dream of Spring (ADoS)
George R. R. Martin
Geography of the World
The World of A Song of Ice and Fire is divided into 4 continents:
WESTEROS,
ESSOS,
SOTHORYOS and
ULTHOS.

Sothoryos
It is the southern continent. There is not much known about it. It is an approximate equivalent of Africa.
2 known cities (in ruins):
Yeen
Zamettar
It has many islands surrounding its coastline.
Essos
It is the largest continent in the World. It is also a geographical equivalent of Eurasia and a cultural equivalent of Asia.
It consists of:
The 9 Free Cities
The Dothraki Sea
Slaver's Bay
Valyrian penninsula
Lhazar
Qarth
Yi Ti
Asshai and the Shadowlands
The Nine Free Cities consist of:
Braavos
Myr
Pentos
Volantis
Lorath
Lys
Tyrosh
Norvos
Qohor
coastal cities
island cities
inland cities
The Slaver's Bay consists of:
Astapor
Meereen
Yunkai
New Ghis
The Dothraki Sea is a sea of grass in the middle of which is the capital of all Dothraki - Vaes Dothrak, beneath the Mother of Mountains.
The people of Essos
the Dothraki
the Ghiscari
the Lhazareen
the Qartheen
the people of the Free Cities (Braavosi, Myrmen, Pentoshi, Volantene, Lysene, Lorathi, Tyroshi, Norvosi, Qohorik)
Westeros
The story mainly happens on this continent, which is a cultural equvalent of Europe
The Land Beyond the Wall
It is the land that lies north of the Wall. The important places are:
the Haunted Forest
Fist of the First Men
Thenn
the Frostfangs
the Wall
The North
The North is the largest region in Westeros. The northern people trace descent to the First Men, with Starks being the ruling House.
The most important places are:
Winterfell
White Harbor
Karhold
Moat Cailin
the Dreadfort
The Iron Isles
Inhabited by the First Men who adopted the faith in the Drowned God (and His opponent, the Storm God) and call themselves Ironborn.
The Islands:
Pyke
Great Wyk
Old Wyk
Harlaw
Saltcliffe
Blacktyde
Orkmont
The Riverlands
Important places:
Riverrun
the Twins
Harrenhal
Lord Harroway's Town
Saltpans
The Riverlands are one of the most unsettling areas of Westeros. They were ruled by House Mudd of the First Men, then by 3 Andal Houses, only to become a toy in the wars between the Ironborn and the Storm Kings. They were finally absorbed by the Kingdom of the Iron Isles. Targaryens restored them as a separate entity.
The Vale
The Vale was the first place invaded by the Andals and is one of the most inaccesible and mountainous regions in the Seven Kingdoms.
Important places:
the Eyrie
Gates of the Moon
the Bloody Gate
Gulltown
Redfort
Runestone
The Westerlands
The Westerlands are ruled by the rich House Lannister and are known for its mines of gold, dug into the hills and mountains.
Important places:
Casterly Rock and
Lannisport
Golden Tooth
The Crownlands
The lands loyal only to the King or, before the rebellion, to the Targaryens.
Notable places:
King's Landing
Dragonstone
Duskendale
Claw Isle
The Stormlands
Named for its coastal weather, the Stormlands were once ruled by the Storm Kings brought down by Aegon the Conqueror. Aegon then established House Baratheon by marrying his bastard half-brother and the daugther of the Storm King.
Important places:
Storm's End
Tarth
Blackhaven
Rainwood
The Reach
The biggest region in the south, it is the most fertile and marked by wines and flowers. Even the ancient ruling House was named Gardener. It is also the homeplace of the Faith in the Seven in Westeros and the center of knowledge of the whole continent.
Important places:
Highgarden
Oldtown
Brightwater Keep
Ashford
Bitterbridge
the Arbor
Dorne
It is the desert region that has defied the Conquest the longest and joined the Seven Kingdoms by marriage, keeping the title of Prince or Princess instead of only Lord. In Dorne, women can rule and the blood of the warrior princess Nymeria is still present.
Important places:
Sunspear
Starfall
Yronwood
Lemonwood
Sandstone
The Culture
The culture of the world is very rich and old. It can be easily compared with many things from our world and our past.
People
The ancient races and peoples
the Children of the Forest
the giants
the Others

or the White Walkers
humans:
the First Men
(Vikings)
the Andals

(Europeans)
the Valyrians
(Latins)
the Rhoynar
(Egyptians)
the Ghiscari
(Sumerians)
the Dothraki
(Mongols)
Westeros specific peoples and tribes
the Ironborn
(the Iron Men from the sea)
the Dornish
(mixture of the Andals and the Rhoynar)
the tribes of
the Vale
the North
the Crannogmen
(swamp people from the Neck)
Wildlings or the Free Folk
Religion
The Old Gods
>
weirwoods
(still in every important castle)
> in the North, Beyond the Wall, in the Neck
7 faces of the same God:
Mother
Father
Maiden
Warrior
Smith
Crone
Stranger
The Seven
> the Andals, in the south of Westeros, in the Free Cities
The building is called a
Sept
, the priests
Septons
and
Septas
. The leader is the
High Septon
.
R'hllor
, the Lord of Light, whose opponent is
the Great Other
, who rules the Darkness.
The religion's source is in
Asshai
, in the
Shadowlands
. The
Red priests
perform many different rituals. Most common phrase is:
''The night is dark and full of terrors.''
The
Drowned God
, worshiped by the
Ironborn
, is the
god of Sea
and his opponent is the
Storm God
, with whom he is in an eternal battle.
Languages
The most widespread is the
Common Tongue
, that is spoken in almost all parts of the World. Still, the tongue has many dialects and accents, differentiating by region or nobleness.
The
Old Tongue
is the ancient language of the First Men, the Children and the giants.
High Valyrian
is the language of the
Valyrian Freehold
and its
bastard forms
-
Low Valyrian
- are still used in the
Free Cities and other cities in Essos
.
Other languages:
Dothraki
Ghiscari
Asshai'i
Summer Tongue
Lhazareen
others
Governance
Almost whole continent of Westeros is ruled by one King, styled (for example):
Robert Baratheon,
the First of His Name,
King of the Andals, the Rhoynar and the First Men,
Lord of the Seven Kingdoms and
Protector of the Realm.
The King has a
chief advisor and executor of His command
, who is called the
Hand
. The Hand also decides in King's name while He is
unavaliable
.
The highborn say:
''What the King dreams, the Hand builds,''
while the lowborn say:
''The King eats and the Hand takes the shit.''
The Small Council:
the
King
or the
Hand
Master of
Coin
Master of
Laws
Master of
Ships
Master of
Whisperers
Lord Commander of the Kingsguard
7 knights of the
Kingsguard
Other customs
Inheritance
The line of succesion goes from the
eldest son to the youngest
and then from the
oldest daughter to the youngest.
After those come cousins or acknowledged bastards. It is so in all the regions except
Dorne
, where the heir is the
oldest to the youngest regardless the gender.

But the real heir becomes the one that has the power and supporters needed to support his claim.
Knighthood
Knights are called
Ser

(not Sir)
and are anointed by seven oils by septons, though any knight can knight another knight. They must swear vows to protect the innocent, women and children and others.
Guest right
The
guest right
is as ancient as the man himself and is
sacred in all religions
. After a guest has eaten under the host's roof, the host may not hurt him and his envoy
in any way
. In the thousands of years of history, it has only been broken twice.
Beasts or animals
There are many special animals that may posses magical powers or have a special place in the culture.
dragons
krakens
mammoths
direwolves
House Targaryen
The House that conquered the Westeros was once an important part of the governance of the Valyrian Freehold and the only entirely surviving House of the Valyrian nobility.
FIRE

AND

BLOOD
Important members:
King Aegon I, the Conqueror
King Aerys II, the Mad King
Prince Rhaegar
King Viserys III, the Beggar King
Princess Daenerys
House Baratheon
OURS
IS THE
FURY
The House that traces descent from the Storm Kings was actually a newly founded House, established by the Targaryens.
Important members:
Robert I
Stannis
Renly
Joffrey
Myrcella
Tommen
House Lannister
HEAR
ME
ROAR!
The Lannisters are named after Lann the Clever, from the Age of Heroes, who tricked the Casterlys out of the Casterly Rock using only his wit and cunning. He began the rule of Lannisters over the Kingdom of the Rock.
Important Lannisters:
Tywin
Kevan
Cersei
Jamie
Tyrion
Lancel
House Tyrell
GROWING STRONG
Once servants of the Gardener Kings, they became Lords after cooperating with Aegon Targaryen in the Conquest.
Important people:
Olenna
Mace
Loras
Margaery
House Stark
WINTER IS COMING
Starks are descendants of the First Men and they kept the religion of the Old Gods and many customs originating in the times of the First Men and the Children of the Forest.
Important Starks:
Eddard
Robb
Sansa
Arya
Bran
Rickon
House Arryn
AS
HIGH
AS
HONOR
The Arryns are one of the oldest Houses of Andal nobility, establishing their rule among other Houses in the mountainous region.
Important Arryns:
Jon
Robert
House Tully
FAMILY,
DUTY,
HONOR
The Tullys are a House that came in power after the Targaryens destroyed the Kingdom of the Iron Isles and the Riverlands, establishing the Riverlands as a separate part of the Kingdoms again.
Important Tullys:
Hoster
Brynden
Catelyn
Lysa
Edmure
House Greyjoy
WE
DO
NOT
SOW
The Ironborn are descendants of the First Men that lived on the Sea. They despise common people and often raid shores. They are very stubborn and the like to be independent, thus they rose in a rebellion whenever they saw a chance to reclaim the position of a Kingdom.
Important Greyjoys:
Balon
Victarion
Euron
Aeron
Theon
Asha
House Nymeros Martell
UNBOWED,
UNBENT,
UNBROKEN
House Martell esteblished its rule in Dorne with the arrival of princess Nymeria and are so a mixture of desert Westerosi and Rhoynar. To this day, their House name is Nymeros Martell, in honor of the warrior princess. Because Dorne was never conquered in war, but instead became part of the Seven Kingdoms by marriage, House Martell kept the title of Prince or Princess instead of just Lord. They are also very temperamental.
Important Martells:
Elia
Oberyn
Doran
Arianne
Common features:
pale/white
skin
silver
or
gold
hair
violet
eyes
Common features:
dark
or
brown
hair
Common features:
blonde
or
golden
hair
green
eyes
Common features:
brown
or
light brown
hair
Common features:
black or
dark
hair
brown
eyes
Common features:
black or
dark
hair
blue
eyes
Common features:
red/auburn
hair
blue
eyes
Common features:
black or
dark
hair
brown
eyes
Common features:
olive
skin
black or
dark
hair
brown
eyes
A note on seasons
The seasons in the World are not strictly time limited, even though they do have the common succession (spring, summer, fall, winter). That means that summers can last decades and winters generations, but springs and falls are short in comparison.
Bastards
Only noble bastards have special privileges and carry names that differ from region to region.
Surnames by regions:
the North -
SNOW
the Iron Islands -
PYKE
the Riverlands -
RIVERS
the Vale -
STONE
the Westerlands -
HILL
the Crownlands -
WATERS
the Stormlands -
STORM
the Reach -
FLOWERS
Dorne -

SAND
People on the Wall and beyond:
Lord Commander Jeor Mormont
Maester Aemon
Mance Ryder, the King Beyond the Wall
People in the North
Jon Snow
Maester Luwin
People in the Riverlands
Walder Frey
In the Crownlands
Petyr Baelish
Varys
Grand Maester Pycelle
Ilyn Payne
Barristan Selmy
Oberyn's daughters called
the Sand Snakes
People connected to the Targaryens
Khal Drogo
Magister Ilyrio
Jorah Mormont
HBO television series
In 2011 the first episode of the series aired on HBO.
The whole series is named after the first book - Game of Thrones (to be simpler) and currently the third season is airing.
Sources:
prehistory - 10000 BL
10000 BL - 6000 BL
5000 BL - 100 BL
4000 BL:
The Andals invade the Iron Islands, but assimilate among the Ironborn.
The Seven Kingdoms
After the Andal invasion (or before) many Kingdoms were set up in Westeros.
King in the North / King of Winter
House STARK (First Men)
King of Mountain and Vale
House ARRYN (Andals)
King of Rivers and Hills
House MUDD (First Men)
House TEAGUE (Andals)
House FISHER (Andals)
House JUSTMAN (Andals)
King of the Stromlands / Storm King
unnamed House of Storm Kings (First Men)
King of the Iron Islands / Iron King
House GREYIRON (First Men)
King of the Iron Isles and the Riverlands
House HOARE (First Men)
King of the Reach
House GARDENER (First Men)
King of the Rock
House CASTERLY (First Men)
House LANNISTER (Andals)
Prince of Dorne
House NYMEROS MARTELL (Andals and Rhoynar)
8000 BL - 1 AL
6000 BL - 4000 BL
1 AL - 281 AL
283 AL - 298 AL
www.westeros.org
www.towerofthehand.com
A Game of Thrones, A Clash of Kings, A Storm of Swords, A Feast for Crows, A Dance with Dragons by George R. R. Martin
pictures:
http://www.tednasmith.com/ - Ted Nasmith
http://en.amokanet.ru/gallery/martin/ - Amok
http://7kingdoms.ru/2009/yason-ingl/ - Jason Engle
http://7kingdoms.ru/2009/martina-pilcerova/ - Martina Pilcerova
http://7kingdoms.ru/2009/mark-simonetti/ - Mark Simonetti
http://morano.pl/main.php - Tomasz Jedruszek
http://7kingdoms.ru/2009/majkl-komark/ - Michael Komarck
http://www.guillemhp.com/gallery/ - Guillem Pongiluppi
http://coreythorn.deviantart.com/
http://crisurdiales.deviantart.com/
Other-in-Law - Joe Fullerton
Tear of Cartographer's Guild

Ghiscari slave cities were old when the World was young.
Orders
Night's Watch
It's a
military order
that protects the
Seven Kingdoms
from the nothern beings. It resides on
the Wall
. Its primary role was to fight off
the Others
, but after thousands of years of quiet they began fighting the
wildlings
instead. It was once a glorious order with many good knights deciding to
''take the black''
, but later it became the place where they sent people who have commited serious crimes.
Maesters
Maester is a
counselor
and a
healer
, trained in many
scientific and useful skills
. Almost every castle in Westeros has one and he is sworn to obey and counsel. Maesters are trained in the
Citadel of Oldtown
, where they forge a
chain of links
made of different materials or substances which represent an area of knowledge the maester has mastered.
Words to learn
to anoint - to apply water or oil with light strokes on somone as part of a religious ceremony

to haunt - to keep coming into someone's mind in a disturbing way

to raid - to make a sudden attack on an enemy
to plunder - to force your way into a place and steal everything of value
to ravage - to cause great damage to something

to invade - to enter a country so as to conquer or occupy it
to conquer - to take control of a country or its people by military force

wit - the ability think quickly and make good decisions
cunning - skilled at decieving people, skillful or clever

to tame - make less powerful and easier to control

rebellion - opposition to authority and control
doom - a tragic or ruinous fate, inevitable destruction
Ulthos
Nothing is known of this continent. It is situated near the city of Asshai and in the Saffron Straits between Essos and Ulthos lies the island of Ulos.
Full transcript