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Ecology:

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Brittany Moore

on 13 May 2015

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Transcript of Ecology:

Ecology

Ecosystems: Everything Is Connected

How Ecosystems Work
Life depends on the sun…. Sort of…..
Energy flows in ecosystems.
What eats what?
Food Chains and Food Webs


What is an Ecosystem?
Ecosystem
: includes all the different organisms living in a certain area, along with their physical environments.

Ecosystems:
Everything is connected

Species Interaction
Predation
Competition
Parasitism
Mutualism
Commensalism
Ecosystems are composed of:
1. Biotic Factors:
-the living parts of an ecosystem
-They interact with each other and
non-living parts of the ecosystem
-examples:
Animals
Plants
Microorganisms

2. Abiotic Factors
-
the non-living parts of the environment.
- examples:
Temperature
Sunlight
Humidity
Water Supply
Soil Type
Mineral nutrients
Organisms or Individuals
Organism
: an individual living thing.

Species:
is a group of organisms that are able to produce fertile offspring and that share common genes and therefore resemble each other.

is a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular place.
Population:
-
Communities:
-a group of interacting populations of different species.
Includes: populations of all the plants, fish, insects, amphibians, and microorganisms that live in and around the pond.

Ecosystem:
-includes all the different organisms living in a certain area, a long with their physical environment
Biomes:
- areas with similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals and soil organisms
Biosphere:
-the regions of the surface, atmosphere and hydrosphere of the Earth occupied by living organisms.
Niche
:
-an organism's relationship with its environment both living and non-living.
Habitat:

- the actual place an organism lives.
Predation
:
-one organism kills and eats another organism.
Prey
: organisms that are eaten
Predator
: organism that does the eating
Competition:
-occurs when two or more organisms of the same or different species attempt to use the same limited resource.
Parasitism:
-the relationship between the parasite and its host.
Host
: the organism the parasite takes its nourishment from.
Parasite
: organism that live in or on another organism
Mutualism:
-a cooperative partnership between two species in which both species benefit.

Commensalism:
- is a relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.
Life Depends on the Sun
Sun= ultimate source of energy for most
Photosynthesis= plants use sun to make food
What environment would not use sun as its source of energy?
Consumers/Producers
Consumers:
- organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms.
Producers:
-an organism that makes its own food.
What eats what?
Herbivores:
consumers that only eat producers.

Carnivores:
consumers that only eat other consumers.
Omnivores:
eats both animal and plants.
Decomposers: consumers that only get their food by breaking down dead organisms.
Decomposers: consumers that get their food by breaking down dead organisms.
Are you a carnivore, herbivore or an omnivore?
HERBIVORES

Plant Eaters
Carnivores
( meat eaters)
Omnivores
(Eaters of All)
Decomposers
Food Chains and Food Webs
Food Chain:
is a sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another.
Food Web:
shows multiple feeding relationships in an ecosystem.
Trophic Level:
each step in the transfer of energy.
How Ecosystems Change
Sucession
Secondary Sucession
Primary Sucession
Succession
- a regular pattern of changes over time in the types of species in a
community.

Climax Community
-
community that eventually forms if the land is left undisturbed.
Secondary Succession:
- Succession that occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed.
Pioneers:
- the first organisms to colonize any newly available area and start the process of succession.

Fire-Maintained Communities
Primary Succession:

- succession that occurs on surfaces where no ecosystem existed before.
slower because of the lack of soil.
example: new island
Kinds of Ecosystems
Forests
Grasslands
Chaparral
Deserts
Tundra
Forests
Tropical Rain Forest
Temperate Forests
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Taiga
Tropical Rain Forests
occur in a belt around the Earth near the Equator.
Warm, wet and humid: ideal for growing plants
Produces most verity of plant species than any other biome.
Soil is thin and poor.
Get about 250cm of rain a year.
Little seasonal variation in temperature
Canopy:
tops of trees.
Temperate Forests
occur in North and South America, Australia and New Zealand
Moist, cool,humid forest.
High rain fall and moderate temperatures
Ferns, moss and 300 ft. tall evergreen trees.
The Pacific Northeast is home to North America’s only temperate forest.
Occur at 48 degrees north latitude
Temperate Deciduous Forests
trees drop their broad, flat leaves each fall.
Used to be found all over NA, Europe, and Asia.
Generally occur 30-50 degrees, North Latitude
Seasonal Variations/ Growing season last 4-6 months
Receives 75-250 cm of rain a year
Rich, deep soil
Taiga
Savannas
The West African Plains
Contain the greatest collection of grazing animals and predators on Earth.
Found in the tropics, near the equator
Little rain
Wet and dry seasons
Temperate Grasslands
found in the interiors of continents where there is too little rainfall for trees to grow.
Types: Prairies, Steppes, and Pampas
Mountains play a crucial role in maintaining grasslands.
Only get 25 cm of rainfall a year
Rainfall increases as you move eastward, so some tall grasses and shrubs can grow.
Hot temperatures in summer so fires are common
Chaparral
occurs in the mid-latitudes, about 30 degrees north and south of the equator.
Mostly in coastal area that have Mediterranean climates.
Hot, dry summers: mild, wet winters
Slight variations in seasonal temperature
Deserts
Areas that receive less than 25 cm of precipitation a year.
Hot Deserts: Sonoran Desert are closer to the equator
Cold Deserts: Great Basin area
Mountains block the passage of rain clouds
They are the driest places on Earth.
Tundra
biome without tall trees that lies north of the Arctic Circle.
Frozen tundra soil supports tough grasses and shrubs.
Summers are short: only top few inches of soil thaw.
Permafrost: permanently frozen soil.
In summer covered with swaps and bogs
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