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Physical Features of the Earth

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Althea Abergos

on 23 August 2014

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Transcript of Physical Features of the Earth

Summer
Autumn
Lunar Eclipse
Spring
Summer Solstice
Winter Solstice
Winter
Division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and hours of daylight.
Caused by Earth’s revolution and tilt on its rotational axis.
4 Seasons:
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter

Seasons
Astronomical event that occurs twice each year as the sun reaches its highest or lowest excursion relative to the celestial equator or the celestial sphere
Summer Solstice: Beginning of Summer, Longest day of the year
Winter Solstice: Beginning of Winter, Shortest day of the year
Latin Sol: Sun; Sistere: To stand still

Occurs twice a year, around 20 March and 22 September
Latin: Aequus: Equal; Nox: Night
The sun crosses the equator
Day and night are of approx. equal length
Equinoxes
Physical Features of the Earth
Outline
Seasons
Four Seasons
Solstices
Equinox
Tides
Spring Tide
Neap Tide
Proxigean Spring Tide
Eclipse
Solar Eclipse
Total
Annular
Partial
Lunar Eclipse
Total Penumbral
Penumbral
Partial
Seeds take root and vegetation begins to grow.
The weather is warmer and often wetter.
Animals wake or return from warmer climates, often with newborns.
Snow from previous season melt.
Increased rainfall.
Spring
Summer
Temperatures increase to the hottest of the year.
Heat waves may cause trouble to plants, people and animals.
Forest fires may become frequent

Autumn or Fall
Temperatures cool again
Plants may begin to grow dormant
Animals prepare for the coming cold
Winter
Often brings a chill
Some areas experience snow or ice
Others see only cold rain
Animals find ways to adapt and warm themselves
Solstices
Tides
periodic rises and falls of large bodies of water.
caused by the gravitational interaction between the Earth and the Moon
The gravitational attraction of the moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon
Another bulge occurs on the opposite side, since the Earth is also being pulled toward the moon (and away from the water on the far side)
Since the earth is rotating while this is happening, two tides occur each day.

Spring Tides
Spring tides are especially strong tides (they do not have anything to do with the season Spring)
They occur when the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon are in a line.
The gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun both contribute to the tides.
Occur during the full moon and the new moon.

a rare, unusually high tide
This very high tide occurs when the moon is both unusually close to the Earth (at its closest perigee, called the proxigee) and in the New Moon phase (when the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth)
The proxigean spring tide occurs at most once every 1.5 years.
Proxigean Spring Tide
Neap Tides
Neap tides are especially weak tides.
They occur when the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun are perpendicular to one another (with respect to the Earth).
Neap tides occur during quarter moons.
Solar Eclipse
occurs when the moon passes between the sun and Earth, and the moon fully or partially blocks the Sun.
Annular solar eclipse
An annular solar eclipse can be observed when the Moon moves centrally in front of the Sun.

The Sun's outer edges are then still visible and form a “ring of fire” around the Moon.

Like total solar eclipse, annular solar eclipses are quite rare. They can only be observed during New Moon, when:
• the Sun is near one of the nodes of the lunar orbit, so Earth, Sun and Moon form a straight line,
• and the observer is located in the path of the Moon's antumbra.

Unlike during a total solar eclipse, the Moon covers the Sun only partly during a partial solar eclipse, as seen from Earth.
A partly obscured Sun can be seen from Earth during New Moon, when:
• the Sun is near one of the nodes of the lunar orbit, so Earth, Sun and Moon roughly form a straight line,
• and the observer is located in the Moon's penumbra.

Partial Solar Eclipse
They can only be observed during New Moon, when:

• the Sun is near one of the nodes of the lunar orbit, so Earth, Sun and Moon form a straight line,
• and the observer is located in the path of the Moon's umbra

Total Solar Eclipse
8/10/2014 Full
9/28/2015 Full
11/14/2016 Full
5/25/2017 New
1/2/2018 Full
7/13/2018 New
8/30/2019 New
10/16/2020 New
12/4/2021 New
1/21/2023 New

An eclipse of the moon can only happen at full moon, when the sun, Earth and moon line up in space, with Earth in the middle.
At such times, Earth’s shadow falls on the moon, creating a lunar eclipse.
When this happens – and it happens two to four times every year – everyone on Earth’s night side can see the eclipse.
Lunar Eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse can be observed at night and during Full Moon when
the Moon is near one of its orbital nodes so Sun, Earth and Moon roughly form a straight line,
And the observer is located on the night side of Earth.

partial lunar eclipse
A total penumbral eclipse is a lunar eclipse that occurs when the moon becomes completely immersed in the penumbral cone of the Earth without touching the umbra.
total penumbral eclipse
only the more diffuse outer shadow of Earth falls on the moon’s face
more subtle, and much more difficult to observe
there is never a dark bite taken out of the moon, as in a partial eclipse.
The eclipse never progresses to reach the dramatic minutes of totality.
At best, at mid-eclipse, very observant people will notice dark shading on the moon’s face. Others will look and notice nothing at all.
penumbral lunar eclipse
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