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Age of Exploration

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zak wilson

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Age of Exploration

Age of Exploration
The Story Matters
Let's read it together
Christopher Columbus lived in Genoa, Italy. He joined the Portuguese merchant marine and became a sailor. On trading voyages to Africa, he learned about navigation and wind currents. Columbus believed that if he sailed west, he would eventually reach Asia. He tried to convince various European rulers to help him test his idea.

Finally, Queen Isabella of Spain decided that
Columbus could win glory and wealth for
Spain. She and her husband Ferdinand
supplied money for his voyage. When Columbus
reached the Americas in 1492, he believed
he had reached Asia. Instead, Columbus had
opened up the Americas to Europeans.
Europe Begins to
EXPLORE

In the 1400s and 1500s, Europeans gradually gained control of the Americas and parts of Asia. Many events came together to create the right time for
overseas
exploration
Overseas
-
Across the ocean or sea
.

Circumnavigate
-
to go completely around something, in this case the world.

Smallpox-
a disease that causes a high fever and often death
.

Obtain
-
to take possession of.

Primary-
most important; first

Global
- involving the entire Earth

Plantation
- a large estate or farmer that used enslaved people or hired workers to grow and harvest crops.

Cash Crop-
crops grown in large amounts to be sold for profit.

Resources- a ready supply of something valuable.

Commerce- an exchange of goods; business.

entrepreneur- One who organizes, pays for, and takes on the risk of setting up a business

Mercantilism
-
an economic theory that depends on a
greater amount of exports than
imports in order to increase a
country's supply of gold and silver.

Cottage Industry- a system for making goods in workers' homes.
Search for Trade Routes
During the Middle Ages,
Europeans began to
buy silks, spices, and
other luxury goods from
Asia. The Europeans
wanted a better way
to import and export
those goods rather
than using traditional
"land" trade
routes
pictured here.
Chinese and Indian traders sent spices by caravan over the Silk Road and other routes to the eastern Mediterranean when trading with Europe-
So what's the point of setting up new routes?
By establishing a new route for trade with Asian countries, Europeans could take out the "middle man" and create more profit for themselves
by eliminating distribution fees set up by the Arab and Byzantine traders.
Technology and Exploration
By the 1400s, a number of technological inventions became available to European explorers. Things such as:

1.) Astrolabe (AS-truh-layb)

2.) Compass
3.) Mapmakers got smarter. This cheezy clip tells about how the Earth is round, not flat.
4.) Printing press began to get more use. With the printing press back in
action, mapmakers could print multiple copies of accurate maps.
What else did map makers do?
European mapmakers also learned about the Indian Ocean by studying the works of the Arab geographer
al-Idrisis (ehl-ah-DREE-see) Many Europeans concluded that sailing around Africa was the best way to get to Asia.
5.) Triangular Sails- Another Arab creation.

Portugal
Spain
France
England
The rise of STRONG Kingdoms
Even with new sailing skills and tools, exploration was still expensive and dangerous. Buy by the 1400s, the rise of towns and trade had strengthened Europe's governments.
By the end of the 1400s, FOUR strong kingdoms had emerged in Europe:

1.) Portugal
2.) Spain
3.) France
4.) England
END OF PART 1
Let's do a vexillology activity
click again to see an example
Vexillology- the study of flags
Vexillology is important because several
of the Exploring countries during the
AGE OF EXPLORATION sailed under the
flag of their country. It is very important
to understand what your flag stands for if
you were going to fly it over your ship!
For EXAMPLE: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



Red
stands for Hardiness
and Valor
White stands for
innocence and
purity.
Blue
signifies vigilance,
perseverance
& justice
The star is a symbol of the heavens and the divine goal to which man has aspired from time immemorial
The star
also represents
each state that
is a part of the
USA
the stripe is symbolic of the rays of light emanating from the sun. PLUS there are 13
total stripes, which represents the
original 13 colonies
The seven
red stripes
represent the blood that was shed for our freedom.
The 6 white stripes represent courage

End of first section
Computer lab tomorrow to research
technology
Astrolabe-

a Medieval instrument for measuring altitudes of stars.
Compass
-
a device with a magnetized needle that points north and is used for determining direction.
Cartographer
-
a map maker.
Printing Press
-
a machine used for printing on paper from plates.
Triangle Sails
-
allowed ships to go in nearly
any direction, no matter where the wind blew!
Your turn! Get with a partner
and work on the Reading and
filling in the flag information
about the 4 powerful kingdoms
flags.
FIRST THINGS FIRST... WHAT DO YOU THINK VEXILLOLOGY IS?
PART 1
Early Voyages of Discovery
During the early 1400s, England and France were still at war with each other, and Spain was still fighting the Muslims. This let Portugal take the lead in exploring new trade routes to Asia.
Portugal leads the Way!
Prince Henry of Portugal became known as "Henry the Navigator," even though he had never made an ocean voyage.
As Henry's adventures sailed along Africa's west coast, they were creating new maps and features to be installed on those new maps. They were
obtaining
gold from trade with African kingdoms.
The Explorers also traveled west from Portugal into
the Atlantic ocean, where they seized the islands of:
1.) Azores (AY-zawrz)
2.) Madeira (muh-DIRH-uh)
3.) Cape Verde (VUHRD)
Vasco da Gama
In 1497,
V
asco da Gama-
a Portuguese explorer
rounded the southern tip of Africa and made the first successful trip from Europe to Asia, by landing on India's south west coast.
THE FIRST VOYAGES OF
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS
While the Portuguese were exploring Africa's Western coast, an Italian navigator named Christopher Columbus formed a bold plan to reach Asia. IT WAS TO SAIL WEST ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN.
For years Columbus had tried to convince various European rulers to pay for the voyage, and
finally in 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain agreed to support Columbus.
In August of 1492, Columbus sailed west from Spain with three ships: The Nina, The Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
After weeks of not seeing any land, an island appeared on the horizon. It was the island of San Salvador, an island in the Caribbean Sea!
Columbus claimed the island of San Salvador in the name of SPAIN.
After San Salvador, Columbus sailed even
further into the Caribbean Sea to discover
islands of Cuba and Hispaniola.
Columbus began trading with the Taino (TEYE-noh) people. So when he returned to Spain he would have some proof of his discovery.

Columbus returned to Spain with things such as:

- a
c
o
l
o
r
f
u
l
parrot
- some
gold
-
spices
- he even brought back some Taino People!
THE CRAZY THING IS:

COLUMBUS THOUGHT HE WAS IN ASIA!!


what do you mean
this isn't ASIA???
HE NEVER REALIZED THAT HE HAD ACTUALLY ARRIVED IN THE AMERICAS!!


IT was not until 1502 that another Italian explorer named AMERIGO VESPUCCI became convinced that Columbus had discovered a "NEW WORLD"
Questo non è l'Asia !!!!
meaning- this is not Asia!!! We should
call it America!
dovremmo chiamare questo posto l'America!
This is the guy where the name
America comes from!
PART 2
Spanish Conquerors
Columbus' success though, pleased the Spanish Monarchs.
Well done ole chap
The RETURN of Columbus
With support from the King and Queen, eager investors quickly organized a second return for Columbus.

On his second voyage he brought with him
CONQUISTADORS.
Conquistador-

the soldiers/explorers that Spain sent to the Americas
The first time the Natives saw the conquistadors, they were very frightened by them!!
They were frightened because the natives
had never seen people and animals like this
before. The conquistadors had with them
things like:
1.) Armor
2.) Powerful Horses

3.) Dogs

4.) Guns and
Weapons
FERDINAND MAGELLAN
During the 1500s, Spain continued to explore the Americas, but it was still interested in finding a western route to Asia.
In 1518, Spain hired Ferdinand Magellan. His
Primary
goal was to sail past the Americas and into Asia.
Magellan traveled along South America's east coast, searching for a route to Asia. Near the southern tip of the continent he found a narrow passage to pass through, today it is called the STRAIT OF MAGELLAN
After passing through the Strait of Magellan, he continued west. He eventually ran out of food and water and the crew had to eat leather, sawdust, and rats.
After 4 months at sea Magellan had traveled from Spain to the Philippines by sailing west. It was here in the Philippines Magellan was killed in a battle between local tribes.




Without Magellan, the remaining crew members got back on board, sailed through the Indian Ocean, around Africa, and back to Spain.
They became known as the first people to have
circumnavigate
the world.
FRENCH AND ENGLISH
EXPLORERS
The Portuguese successes led England and France to begin their own overseas exploration.
England
JOHN CABOT
In 1497, an Italian/Englishman named
John Cabot explored the North American Coasts of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. He was unsuccessful in finding a waterway to Asia.
In 1524, France sent GIOVANNI da VERRAZANO to find a northern route to Asia.

Verrazano explored and mapped much of the eastern coast of North America, but he did not find a route to Asia.
FRANCE
Most Famous French Explorer is...
Jacques Cartier
- (ZHAHK- kahr-TYAY)

Cartier sailed inland along the St. Lawrence River to present-day Montreal.

Cartier claimed much of Eastern Canada in the name of France.
FRANCE AND ENGLAND WRAPPED UP
After these early expeditions,
France and England had to
focus their attention on
religious conflicts and civil wars in their own country.
By the early 1600s, these countries renewed their overseas explorations.
This time, the French and English began to establish their own settlements in the Americas.
Since most of Spain and Portugal's
territories were in South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean, France and England
Began to establish colonies in
North America.
Spain and
Portugal
FRANCE AND
ENGLAND
THE SPANISH CONQUER MEXICO
The voyages of Christopher Columbus inspired many poor Spanish nobles to become conquistadors. Their goal was to travel to the Americas and seek wealth.


19 Year old HERNAN CORTEZ was one of these nobles. In 1504 he sailed to Hispaniola. 11 Years later, he took part in Spains invasion of Cuba.
WEALTH IN
GOOOLD!!!
CORTES ARRIVES IN
MEXICO
While Cortes was in Cuba, he heard stories of Mexico's riches and the powerful Aztec Empire.

In 1519, Cortes traveled from Spain to Mexico in search of gold and glory.
CORTES WAS FROM SPAIN
AZTEC EMPIRE
LETTERS FROM CORTES
While Hernan Cortes was exploring Mexico and
conquering the Aztec Empire, he was simultaneously
writing letters to his country to inform them of
his status and the area around him.
These letters were
later translated to
English and published
as a Primary Source
ACTIVITY FOR EXPLORERS
For this assignment you will need to get with a group and read an actual letter from Cortes. After you read this letter you and your partners will record an exploration of your own.

ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS:
1.) Choose a New World area that you will explore and title it "THE EXPLORATION OF_______"

2.) The first few sentences of your letter will include:
a.) A thank you "shout out" to your king or queen for sponsoring your conquest.
b.) Explain to your king or queen where you plan on leaving from and how you plan on getting to where you are going.
c.) what your intentions are when you get there.

3.) Use your textbooks or the Computers as a resource to:
a.) create a map of the country and city you are leaving from.
b.) create a map of the relative location you are going to
c.) explain the language they speak in the place you are going to IN THE 15th Century.
d.) describe the indigenous people/people that live there 15th Century
e.) explain the physical geography
f.) identify the resource for which you are searching and your intentions once you find that resource
A little about the AZTECS AND CORTES
Most often to please their gods, the Aztecs killed people who they had captured in war.
Malintzin (Cortes' translator and guide) believed that people who were conquered by the Aztec would help Cortes.
Malintzin helped Cortes find
allies
.

Another factor that helped Cortes defeat the Aztec was an invisible ally---GERMS
Small pox killed more people than Spanish weapons
Allies
those who support
each other for
some common purpose
Spain was on it's way to becoming
the world's first
global
empire.
End of
Part 3
PART 3
A summary in a picture
(
HINT: ON THE TEST
)
PART 4
SETTLING THE AMERICAS
The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas between Spain and Portugal
Other nations, however, did NOT accept this treaty.

The Netherlands, France, and England soon joined Spain and Portugal in a race to gain wealth in new lands and to spread Christianity.

The Americas were the primary region where Europeans explored and established settlements.

In the 1500s, the Spanish and the Portuguese had built empires in the Americas.

Beginning in the 1600s, the French, English, and Dutch also began to establish their own settlements
Quick story
Routes
-
the course or way taken to get from a starting point to a destination
Spain's American Empire
By the 1600s, Spain's empire in the Americas had grown to include parts of North America and much of South America.
The islands in the Caribbean Sea were also a part of this empire
The Spanish rulers set 2 goals
for the colonist of the American empire:

1.) bring wealth back to
Spain.

2.) Convert the Native Americans to Christianity
Going to
Spain
Spain permitted it's settler to use the
Native Americans as workers on
plantations
;
(Native Americans were forced into slavery)
ALSO; the Spanish settlers brought contagious diseases with them.

MILLIONS of Native Americans died from illness during the first 50 years of settlement by the Europeans.

SO WHAT IF
NATIVE AMERICANS
WERE IMMUNE TO EUROPEAN DISEASE?



Portuguese settling SOUTH America
In the 1500s a Portuguese explorer named Pedro Alvares Cabal arrived in the South America in the area of modern day Brazil.
He claimed Brazil in the name of Portugal
.

Settlers grew
cash-crops
such as:
1.) Sugar Cane
2.) Tobacco
3.) Coffee
4.) Cotton


With the help of enslaved Africans, Brazil became one of Portugal's most profitable overseas territories.
FRANCE IN NORTH AMERICA
In the 1600s, France settled in today's Eastern Canada.
The French hoped they would become wealthy by setting up Fur trading posts!
specifically....
A hired explorer named Samuel de Champlain would help get furs and establish a trading post called Quebec, which became the capital of New France
Like other settlers, the French brought
with them some of their customs.

Fur trappers and missionaries spread out into the central part of New France.
In 1673, explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet discovered the Mississippi River.

9 years later, explorer La Salle traveled south on the Mississippi and on into the Gulf of Mexico. He named the region Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV.

England in North America
During the 1600s, England started to establish it's own colonies in North America. They were interested in several things that North America had to offer such as:

1.) Natural Resources
2.) Religious Freedoms from England
3.) Create settlements for trade
4.) Simply for exploration purposes
5.) Escape the Economic troubles in ENG

England in North America continued:
In 1606, a group of English merchants and nobles formed the Virginia Company. North America's first permanent English settlement was founded with the Virginia Company's support
in 1607.

The founders named it Jamestown after King James I.
It was the first settlement in the new territory called
Virginia.

At first, the early settlers in Virginia could barely
find enough food to survive. Winter months were
very difficult to survive.

The merchants needed a way to form profit and
some sort of economic system in order to survive.
So Jamestown invested in tobacco.
Tobacco changes everything
World Trade Changes
As Europeans created empires, profitable trade between their homelands and their overseas settlements.
As a result, Europe's economy expanded. By the 1600s, European nations were competing for markets and trade goods
What is Mercantilism?
Long story, but let's read it
TOGETHER
Spain and Portugal took advantage of the gold and silver they gained from their empires. Other European countries wanted to do the same. This led to the theory of mercantilism. The key idea of mercantilism is that a country's power depends on its wealth. Countries can increase their wealth by owning more gold and silver. What is the best way for a country to get more gold and silver? According to
mercantilism
, a country must export, or sell to other countries, more goods than it imports, or buys from other countries.


According to mercantilism, countries should establish
colonies. A colony is a settlement of people living in a territory controlled by their home country. Colonists provide raw materials that are not found or made in the home country. These materials are then shipped to the home country. In the home country, the raw materials are used to manufacture goods so that the home country does not have to buy these foods from other countries.

Europeans established trading posts and colonies in Asia and
North America. By the end of the 1500s, Spain had a colony in the Philippines. In the 1600s, English and French merchants arrived in India. They began trading with the people there. in 1619, the Dutch built a fort on the island of Java, in what is now Indonesia. The Dutch became so powerful that they pushed the Portuguese out of the spice trade.

Guns and powerful ships helped Europeans defeat Arab fleets and Indian armies. Across Asia, Europeans local rulers to open their lands to trade. The arrival of the Europeans in Japan caused a dramatic change in that society. A new Japanese shogun used European-made gun and cannons to dominate his enemies. He was finally able to defeat the feudal lords and the daimyo and reunite Japan.
quick video
http://phschool.com/atschool/worldhistory/interactive_maps/WH07Y00488x.swf
THE END
Quick activity: Get with a partner, I will hand
out a blank map of the world. One the map, create the paths that Cabot, Columbus, Magellan, and Da Gama took in their exploration. Make it with a color coordinated key.
Full transcript