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Politics of the 1920's!
Transcript of Politics of the 1920's!
In 1917 The Bolsheviks bring communism to Russia. Fears abound that this revolution will spread around the world *GASP* even to the United States. American Communist Party forms Massive labor unrest around the country leads many
mainstream Americans to link strikes and unions with
you guessed it.... COMMIES! With labor unrest and fear leading to a national "red scare" there was a crusade against anyone suspected of being unAmerican. The leading crusader... Attorney General
A. Mitchell Palmer Under Palmer's watch the Justice Department rounded up approximately 6,000 people. Many of those arrested are deported SACCO AND VANZETTI Both men maintained their innocence to the day they died... Did they get a fair trial? Were they murderers or just the wrong anarchists in the wrong place at the wrong time??? THIS GUY! GUILT-
When arrested both men were carrying revolvers and lied to investigators. INNOCENCE-
A later investigation, which used ballistic testing and other evidence, concluded that Vanzetti was probably innocent but Sacco may have been guilty.
In 1925 a man claimed that he was part of a gang that was responsibility for the robbery. Sacco and Vanzetti were still not granted a new trial. They appealed for 2 more years before finally being executed in 1927. 2 WARREN G. HARDING BACKGROUND Personality:
Not a bad guy. Just may have been in a little over his head as POTUS!
Had a hard time saying no to people. This allowed cronies to take advantage of their positions in government leading to corruption.
One of the guys rather than a leader. BEFORE HE WAS PRESIDENT
he was a US Senator from Ohio He won the Republican nomination in 1920 despite being a darkhorse candidate.
Defeated Democrat James Cox winning 61% of the vote! "RETURN TO NORMALCY"
"SOLEMN REFERENDUM" Before his nomination, Warren G. Harding declared, "America's present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums, but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; not experiment, but equipoise; not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality...." HARDING'S CABINET: THE GOOD, BAD, AND THE UGLY.... Charles Evans Hughes - Sec. State
Andrew Mellon - Sec. Treasury
Herbert Hoover - Sec. Commerce
Albert Fall - Interior
Harry Daugherty - Attorney General HARDING'S ECONOMIC POLICY 1) The end of Progressive Reform/Regulation
(NO MORE TRUSTBUSTING!!!)
Enforcement is more important than the laws
2) Improve on Laissez-Faire: Don't regulate but help guide business along the path to profits!
3) Harding appoints 4 members to the court - with the exception of TAFT (Chief Justice) they will be anti-progressive. VETERAN'S BENEFITS WWI Vets do not get the sweet hookups that they had received after the Civil War
1924- Adjusted Compensation Act :
Every veteran got a paid up insurance policy due in 20 years. Passed over President Coolidge's veto
(Remember this when we talk about the bonus army) FOREIGN POLICY
1) AMERICA WANTS TO IGNORE THE OUTSIDE WORLD AND RETURN TO ITS ISOLATION ROOTS BUT:
Growing importance of Middle East and OIL!!!
2) DISARMAMENT- This will be handled largely at Washington Naval Conference (1921-1922) WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE Every major naval power invited (except for those darned Russian Commies!)
Sec. State Charles Evans Hughes
AGREEMENTS REGARDING SIZE OF NAVIES &
FORTIFICATION OF PACIFIC HOLDING
5:5:3 (England and America can have 5 ships for every 3 Japanese ships.
Japan agrees as long as they are the only country allowed to fortify Pacific holdings (Remember this during WWII
9 POWER TREATY WILL ALSO EXPAND OPEN DOOR POLICY IN CHINA KELLOGG BRIAND Calvin Coolidge's Sec. State Kellogg
Kellogg Briand Pact - signed with French and ratified by 62 nations
Outlaws offensive war!
Sounds really nice but.... FUN WITH TARIFFS FORDNEY - McCUMBER TARIFF 1922
High Protective Tariffs
Impact on Global Economy?? SCANDALOUS! Many in the Harding Administration looked at these jobs as an opportunity to line their pockets
Public Service becomes self-service!
Col. Forbes caught raiding funding for veterans' hospitals (200 Million bucks)
Sec. Interior Albert Fall gets naval oil reserves transferred to Interior Department
He then accepts bribes to lease them out to private businesses THE MORAL OF TEAPOT DOME 1) Crooked Administration
2) The real lesson -
Fall eventually receives 1 year in prison
The men who bribed him are never convicted HARRY DAUGHERTY Attorney General Daugherty
(Character on Boardwalk Empire)
Forced to resign for selling pardons and liquor permits. POOR HARDING AS SCANDAL BEGINS TO BREAK HARDING DECIDES TO TRAVEL TO ALASKA (Smart Politics)
On the way back he died
What can we learn from Harding???
Coolidge will become President
(The business of America is BUSINESS!)