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Second Language Acquisition
Transcript of Second Language Acquisition
Second Language Acquisition
TCH ED 7210
3. Natural Order
5. Affective Filter
Influenced by Krashen:
Communicative Language Teaching
Some theorists believe that UG is available in SLA, while others argue that the acquisiion of other languages has altered the UG.
Interaction Hypothesis (Hatch, Long, Pica & Gass, 1983):
1. Interactional modification makes input comprehensible;
2. Comprehensible input promotes acquisition; therefore,
3. Interactional modification promotes acquisition
Noticing Hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990, 2001)--nothing is learned unless it has been noticed
Input Processing (Van Patten, 2004)
Processability Theory (MEisel, Clahsen, Pienemann, 1981)
Lantolf & Thorne
Question: Is Krashen's i+1 a revoicing (Bakhtin, 1983) of Vygotsky's ZPD?
Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope (1986) developed a Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), referring to Krashen's Affective Filter Hypothesis
Elaine Horwitz's student Eleni Pappamihiel (2002) modified the scale for ELs and conducted research on middle and high school ELs in the mainstream classroom.
Anxiety in SLA
Robert Garnder and Wallace Lambert (1972)
Instrumental motivation--language learning for immediate or practical goals
Integrative Motivation--language learning for personal growth and cultural enrichment through contact with speakers of the other language
Zoltan Dornyei--student and teacher motivation
"Ideal L2 Self," and MOLT (Gulloteaux & Dornyei, 2008)
Nelson Brooks (1960) and Robert Lado (1964)--Audiolingual Method (ALM)
Theories of SLA
Information Processing--Learners must "Pay attention"-use cognitive resources to process information
SLA as "skill learning" (DeKeyser, 1998, 2001): Language learning begins with Declarative Knowledge--THAT-- and, through practice, it become Procedural Knowledge--HOW
Competiton Model (Bates & Mac Whinney, 1981): after exposure to thousands of examples of language with particular meanings, learners understand how to use the language's "cues" for specific functions
Language Learning Aptitude
Willingness to Communicate (Lightbown & Spada, 2013)--influenced by number of people present, topic of conversation, formality of the circumstances and energy levels (p. 86)
KRASHEN'S FIVE HYPOTHESES
Implications for Teachers
Language development viewed as the formation of habits
Age and SLA
Critical Period Hypothesis
Ideal time for SLA is around puberty; after that, you are "over the hill"
Thomas Scovel (1969): Lateralization of the hemispheres of the brain, language is a function of the left. Scovel suggested that the plasticity of the brain prior to puberty enables children to acquire L1 and L2
Now that we have discussed both FLA and SLA, how can you take your newfound knowledge into your building to provide optimal instruction for ELs and other diverse learners?
A final video showcasing the importance of acquiring additional languages:
learners stop developing target norms--age, anxiety, negative feedback
coined by American Linguist Larry Selinker; a unique linguistic system constructed by a learner, drawing on L1 and different from L2
Complexity/Chaos Theory in SLA
Diane Larsen-Freeman &
Lynne Cameron (2008)
Rationale: Complex systems within the field of Applied linguistics contain many subsystems, much like weather and animal populations, which are often researched using complexity or chaos theory.
Learners and a complex context are interacting, co-adaptive dynamic systems. Learning, as change, is both individual and social. Each individual acts as a unique learning context; when participating in a group, the group as a system both affects and is affected by the individual.