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AP Psychology 04.06 Adulthood Assignment
Transcript of AP Psychology 04.06 Adulthood Assignment
For each of the theories below, list the key physical, cognitive, and social developments described by the theory for each stage of life (remember: not all stages of life are covered by each theory). For each item listed, include at least one example that you have experienced in your own life, or that you expect to experience in the future.
The Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its sense and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment.
I can not remember what had happened to me, as I was so young, but infants begin to interact with their environment by grasping, pushing, and tasting objects in their environment.
The preoperational Stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world.
In this stage, I was between the age of 2 to 7, at this time the world was seen through my eyes, and my eyes only, Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny were all real, and there was no doubt to it. I use to dress up and play make-believe, but I thought it was a real life action.
Formal operations stage
Piaget's last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent is able to understand abstract thinking. Currently, I am in stage, I think hypothetically and overact in situations, meaning I am still not fully developed in this stage. In the future I will be able to abstractly think, and have a grasp on reality.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 years old)
Preoperational Stage: (2-7 years old)
Concrete Operations: (7-12 years old)
Formal Operations: (12- adulthood)
AP Psychology 04.06 Adulthood Assignment
ConCrete operations Stage
Third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought process but is not capable of abstract thinking .
At this time, I was between the age of 7-12, I was able to think logically, but not abstract. I paid attention to the written rules, but I was only able to understand a concept if I could see it, touch it, or feel it in within my hands. That's why I was able to fully understand an experiment, if we did it hands on.
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg proposed three levels of moral development, or the knowledge of right and wrong behavior.
(Very young children)
The consequences determine morality; behavior that is rewarded is right; that which is punished is wrong.
When I was young, I use to try and get my sister into trouble all the time, I use to take various things from my house, but I was never caught; therefore I didn't think it was wrong.
(older children, adolescents, and most adults)
Conformity to social norms is right; nonconformity is wrong.
When I was older, I didn't understand why my dad speed up in some situations, and I use to tell him if was wrong, because it was against the law.
(about 20% of the adult population)
Moral principles determined by the person are used to determine right and wrong and may disagree with societal norms.
Since, I have not gone through this stage, I'll just list an example. Mary and Kate are sisters, Kate has kids and husband, but Mary doesn't. One day, Kate reveals she's going to turn herself in for a crime she committed, Mary goes with her. At the police stations, without Kate realizing it, Mary pretends she committed the crime, rather than Kate, because Kate has a family, and Mary does not.
Erikson's Psychosocial stages of development
Infant: (birth-1 year old)
Toddler: (1-3 years old)
Preschool Age: (3-5 years old)
Elementary School Age: (5-12 years old)
Adolescence: (13-early twenties)
Early Adulthood: (twenties and thirties)
Middle Adulthood: (forties and fifties)
Late Adulthood: (sixties and beyond)
Infant (Birth- 1 years old)
Trust vs Mistrust: Babies learn to trust or mistrust others based on whether or not their needs- such as food and comfort- are met.
Ex: When a parent fulfills the baby's needs, the baby begins to trust his/her parent.
Toddler (1-3 years old)
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt, toddlers realize that they can direct their own behavior.
ex. Toddlers at this stage begin working to become independent, by interacting with their environment.
Preschool age (3-5 years old)
Initiative vs Guilt, preschoolers are challenged to control their own behavior such as controlling their exuberance when they are in a restaurant.
ex. When I was younger, and mom said "no" to buying me something, I controlled myself and didn't throw a tantrum in the store.
Elementary school age ( 5-12 years old)
Industry vs Inferiority, when children succeed in learning new skills and obtaining new knowledge , they develop a sense of industry, a feeling of competence arising from their work and effort.
ex: When I was able to comprehend more than others in my 5th grade class, I felt my self-esteem rising from my work.
Adolescence (13- early twenties)
Identity vs Role Confusion, adolescents are faced with deciding who or what they want to be in terms of occupation, belief, attitudes and behavior patterns.
ex: As I am in this stage, I am figuring out what I want to do with my life, the people I want/ do not want to hang out with, and trying to find my identity.
Early adulthood (twenties-thirties)
Intimacy vs Isolation, the ability to share who they are with another person in a close, committed relationship.
ex: I am not in this stage yet, but if I were, I would have a satifying relationship with another person.
Middle adulthood (forties- fifties)
Generativity vs Stagnation, the challenge to be creative, productive, and nurturant of the next generation.
ex: I am not in this stage, but if I were, I would have the challenge of benefiting myself, my community, my family, etc, by trying to be creative and productive.
Late adulthood (sixties and beyond)
Ego Integrity vs Despair, person will reach wisdom, spiritual tranquility, a sense of wholeness, and acceptance of his/her life.
ex: I am not in this stage, but if I were, I would try to remember all the joy I had in my early life, and not fear death.
Kubler-Ross’ Stages of Death and Dying (DABDA)
People refuse to believe that the diagnosis of death is real
ex: When my cousin died, I refused to believe she was actually gone, because she was so young.
Anger at death itself and the feelings of helplessness to change things.
ex: After my cousin died, I was angry because I had not seen her in awhile, and I blamed myself for not going to visit her, and I blamed death for taking her from me
In which the dying person tries to make a deal with doctors or even with God.
ex: I asked God for one more moment with my cousin, even though in reality I knew it wasn't possible.
Sadness from the losses already experienced.
ex: After she died, I began to cry all the time, I would not eat, and I just wanted her back.
When a person has accepted the inevitable.
ex: After awhile, I accepted the fact that my cousin was gone, and I would see her soon.
Part Two: My development
Select any 20 of the following questions to answer. Group your answers in paragraph form, as if you are telling the story of your development.
When my mom was pregnant with me she ate everything she wanted while she was pregnant, she said she could first feel me move around 5 months into the pregnancy, but I was not a kicker. Her pregnancy was normal, and she listened to soft, classical music. I was carried full term, when I was delivered, my mom was into 4 ½ hours of labor, my father was the only one in the room with her.
part 2 cont.
There was nothing unusual about my delivery, I was a healthy baby, weighing 6 lbs 9 oz. and was 19 inches long, I was born at 1:55 in the afternoon. When I was born, my mom was happy I was here, but she was exhausted. When I first came home, I was filled with happiness and was greeted by my grandparents and aunt, I was the first born, so no siblings. I was an easy baby, I didn't too much, and I wasn't able to sleep through the night until 3 months.
part 2 cont.
I learned to crawl at 7 months, walk at 13 months, and talk at 9 months. At first I was using the words “ooh”, until I learned momma and dadda. I did suck my thumb, I was potty trained at 15 months and fully trained by the time I was 2 years old. I had this special blanket/bear set, that I carried everywhere. I started daycare at 3 months old, and I didn't have separation anxiety
Part 2 cont.
The most challenging part of being an adolescent is all the drama and hormones that come with it. My biggest surprise was the amount of freedom I have, I'm looking forward to even more freedom and being able to drive. I now like to do my hair and create new ideas on what I would wear, rather than as a child.
part 3: Reflection on Life, Values, and Goals
Old age is a time when many people reflect back on their lives, but even young people evaluate their own lives when thinking about death and the prospect of dying. What a person finds rewarding varies across the life span--for example, what you most value as an adolescent is usually not the most important thing to you in mid-life.
Directions: Think about your life now and in the future, and then choose three of the following items to answer. You must answer both questions for each of the three items you have selected
part 3 cont.
If I died tomorrow, I would tell someone about the accomplishments I have completed; making it into the IB program, succeeding academically, and all the love I have from my family and friends. If I died when I was older, I would talk about my family, my career, and enjoyment in life I had, for accomplishments. My goals for the future are to have a good career, get married and have kids, and just be happy with my life.
part 3 cont.
As I get older, I my goals would change a little bit, to provide happiness for my family, set an example for the future generation, and enjoy the time I have left. My family provides happiness, comfort, and security, which makes me happy, I believe it would be the same for when I get older, expect me providing for my future family.