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Transcript of ESOL APPROACHES--review
Comprehension, Interaction, ...
and I would add Application and
Assessment--C.C.C.I & A.A.
we need to teach
to which students can
so that they can
it and then be able to
SIOP, SDAIE, and CALLA use
promote higher level Bloom's
Taxonomy standards: analysis, creativity,
understanding...[see if you can list the 6
categories mentioned by Bloom et al.]
A 'Brainstorm' Review
1. learning strategies (CALLA)
2. Scaffolding Techniques
3. Higher-Order Questioning
Continuum of Strategies:
from Teacher-Centered to
what this means is that we need to intentionally promote ownership a.s.a.p. --we need to make sure our students 'gain independence' as they collaborate.
To Sum up:
The 8 components of
1. Lesson Preparation
2. Building Background
[determining Prior Knowledge]
3. Comprehensible Input
4. Implementation of Strategies
6. Practice & Application
7. Lesson Delivery
8. Review & Assessment
How does all this relate to
language acquisition in the
classroom v. outside? L1 & L2.
Go from 'highly contextualized' to
'de-contextualized'--from BICS to CALP,
from 'less-cognitively demanding' to 'more
Use CALLA strategies:
resourcing, grouping, note-taking,
imagery, auditory representation,
elaboration, transfer, inference
questioning for clarification,
Can we teach CALLA strategies? Yes!
Monitor/Identify Problems; Evaluate; and
Manage your own learning.
BICS is for the most part
acquired out of class, and
CALP in class (highly dependent
on teacher participation
Key Issue: Application
How does it help us to know all this
and NOT apply it? SDAIE, CALLA, SIOP,
The Natural Approach, TPR--all of these
are necessary tools for teachers in the
classroom...yet useless if all we do is
"backwash teaching" a.k.a. "teaching to the
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Common Core State Standards, activities (Student Learning Outcomes & implementation of strategies by teacher), Assessment; Practical Application, Differentiated Instruction as needed, Higher Order thinking, ...
We need to come to the understanding that students bring valuable information to class and that we need to ADD value to them. We build background and trigger prior knowledge as we contextualize our classes with video clips, hands on activities, manipulatives, centers, ...
As mentioned in 2 above, input is made comprehensible as we contextualize our content--video clips, manipulatives, word walls, collaborative work, ...all of these promote acquisition.
These take place as the teacher makes sure that he/she is teaching to ALL students, not only ELL's or non-ELL's. This is also related to differentiation of instruction: the teacher must have a plan to do so as neede and when needed.
Acquisition does not take place in the vacuum and as such it should be the result of interaction, collaboration, brainstorming. We have to give ALL a chance to think and add value to what is being taught. We do not prescribe content; we give students the chance to create and discover content...
It is not uncommon to see teachers 'just presenting' content for students to comprehend at low levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Curricular mappings at times come to limit the creative work that both teachers and students can produce in class. It is critical that we take time to practice and apply what is being acquired. Why would I memorize trigonometry formulas for a quiz if I do not know what trigonometry is used for in the real world? When this happens, we are turning our students into 'warehouses' of knowledge that is not needed for any practical purpose and is then 'discarded' or forgotten or just kept there 'dormant' with no purpose. In this 'test-driven' environment, students come to memorize for short term retention, rather than apply for long term implementation...
This is when we present the lesson and challenge our students to discover, research, practice, implement, create, and acquire life skills. A lesson that does not lead to life skills, should not be taught (perhaps)...
This is the moment when the student, rather than just getting a letter grade, is able to determine to what level he/she has actually acquired the content. The test IS NOT the end result; rather it should be a 'rest area' to continue on the road to life in real contexts...
More often than not, acquisition in class looks more than mere memorization of rules, verb endings, etc. In fact, it misses the component of 'actual language use' in real contexts--grammatical correctness may be diluting the value of acquisition in and out of class.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)--Social Language
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)--Academic Lang.