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Rhetorical Devices

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Kaya Steele

on 19 October 2014

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Transcript of Rhetorical Devices

Epiphany
Is a moment in the story where a character becomes aware or knowledgeable after certain events that are seen through a new light in the story.
“there is a divinity that shapes our ends, rough-hew them how we may.” William Shakespeare "
Hamlet
" (he realizes that there is no wisdom for him to try to inflict the perfect revenge on Claudius — he must take hold of the moment and go with the current.

Exposition
It introduces background information about events, settings, and characters to the reader.
“A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away…”
Star Wars
brings clarity to a script but it is also vital to enhance its literary value. The true essence of a book usually lies in how the reader is introduced to the characters in it and, if done correctly, the reader automatically starts relating to them.
Extended Metaphor
Analogy
It is a comparison of a idea or thing to something that is different from it.
"The white mares of the moon rush along the sky beating the golden hoofs upon the glass heavens." Amy Lowell "
Night Clouds"
Used to link an unfamiliar or a new idea with common and familiar objects
Climax
A particular point where the conflict or tension is at its highest point.
"This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness." Martin Luther King "
I Have A Dream
"
The Climax of the story makes readers mentally prepared for the resolution of the conflict. Hence, climax is important to the plot structure of a story. Moreover, climax is used as a stylistic device or a figure of speech to render balance and brevity to speech or writing.
Alliteration
The repetition of the same sound in the beginning of several words.
"Let us go forth and lead to the land we love." John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Speech
It creates a musical effect in the text that enhances the pleasure of reading a literary piece. It makes reading and recitation of the poems attractive and appealing; thus, making them easier to learn by heart.
Rhetorical Devices
Argument
The main statement of a poem, essay, short story, or a novel.
"It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife." Jane Austen "
Pride and Prejudice
"
Used to give reasons and examples, to persuade us to their point of view
.
Catharsis
To let go of pent-up emotions through certain kinds of art.
"...a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing." William Shakespeare "
Macbeth
"
Catharsis explains the impact of tragedy, comedy or any other form of art on the audience and in some cases even on the performers themselves.
A comparison of two unlike things through a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem.
“All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players;They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts.” Shakespeare "
As You Like It
"
Shakespeare is comparing "earth" to a "stage"

By: Kaya Steele and Meredith Gaither
Foreshadowing
A literary device where the writer gives an advanced hint on whats to come later on in the story.
“Life were better ended by their hate, Than death prorogued, wanting of thy love." Shakespeare "
Romeo and Juliet
"
Romeo says, that he would rather have her love and die sooner than not obtain her love and die later. Eventually, he gets her love and dies for her love, too.
The function of foreshadowing is to build anticipation in readers mind about what might happen next and which adds dramatic tension to a story.
Hubris
Is arrogance and pride that is shown by a character that brings his own downfall.
“Hubris consists in doing and saying things that cause shame to the victim…simply for the pleasure of it. Retaliation is not hubris, but revenge. … Young men and the rich are hubristic because they think they are better than other people.” Aristotle "
Rhetoric
"
In literature, portrayal of hubristic characters serves to achieve a moralistic end. Witnessing a tragic hero suffering due to his hubristic actions, the audience or the readers may fear that the same fate may befall them if they indulge in similar kinds of actions.
Juxtaposition
Where two or more ideas, places, or characters are placed side by side in a poem for developing comparisons and contrasts.
“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way…” Charles Dickens "
A Tale Of Two Cities
"
The function is to surprise their readers and evoke their interest by means of developing a comparison between two dissimilar things by placing them side by side.
Onomatopoeia
A word, which imitates the natural sounds of a thing. It creates a sound effect that mimics the thing described, making the description more expressive and interesting.
“He saw nothing and heard nothing but he could feel his heart pounding and then he heard the clack on stone and the leaping, dropping clicks of a small rock falling.”
For Whom the Bell Tolls
by Ernest Hemingway
It helps the readers to hear the sounds the words they reflect. Therefore, the reader cannot help but enter the world created by the poet with the aid of these words.
Parallelism
The use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, or meaning.
“To err is human; to forgive divine.”
An Essay on Criticism
by Alexander Pope
Imperfection is a human trait and God is most forgiving. The poet wants to say that God is forgiving because his creation is erring.
Its function allows speakers and writers to maintain a consistency within their work and create a balanced flow of ideas
Point Of View
Is the angle of considering things, which shows us the opinion, or feelings of the individuals involved in a situation.
It portrays personal emotions or characters’ feelings about an experience or situation. Writers use a point of view to express effectively what they want to convey to their readers.
Point of view is a reflection of the opinion an individual from real life or fiction can have. Examples of point of view belong to one of these three major kinds:
First-Person POV
First person point of view involves the use of either of the two pronouns “I” and “we”.
“I gazed–and gazed–but little thought. What wealth the show to me had brought.”
Daffodils
by Williams Wordsworth
Second-Person POV
Third-Person POV
Pun
Romantic Irony
Stream of Consciousness
Understatement
Second person point of view employs the pronoun “you”
“You are not the kind of guy who would be at a place like this at this time of the morning. But here you are, and you cannot say that the terrain is entirely unfamiliar, although the details are fuzzy.”
Bright Lights, Big City
by Jay McInemey
Third person point of view uses pronouns like “he”, “she”, “it”, “they” or a name.
“When Jane and Elizabeth were alone, the former, who had been cautious in her praise of Mr. Bingley before, expressed to her sister how very much she admired him.”
Pride and Prejudice
by Jane Austen

Is play on words in which a humorous effect is produced by using a word that suggests two or more meanings or by exploiting similar sounding words having different meanings.
“On the contrary, Aunt Augusta, I’ve now realised for the first time in my life the vital Importance of Being Earnest. I always told you, Gwendolen, my name was Ernest, didn’t I? Well, it is Ernest after all. I mean it naturally is Ernest.”
The Importance of Being Earnest
by Oscar Wilde
Puns add profound meanings to texts and shape the way in which the text is interpreted by the readers. By playing with the words, the writers reveal their cleverness and the cleverness of their characters.
It creates an illusion of reality but then destroys the illusion by revealing that he is actually making up the story as he goes.

Is a method of narration that describes in words the flow of thoughts in the minds of the characters.
“He is young Leopold, as in a retrospective arrangement, a mirror within a mirror (hey, presto!), he beholdeth himself. That young figure of then is seen, precious manly, walking on a nipping morning from the old house in Clambrassil to the high school, his book satchel on him bandolier wise, and in it a goodly hunk of wheaten loaf, a mother’s thought.”
Ulysses
by James Joyce.
Its function expresses in words the flow of a character’s thoughts and feelings in their minds. The technique aspires to give readers the impression of being inside the mind of the character.
Is a figure of speech that makes a situation seem less important than it really is.
“I have to have this operation. It isn’t very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain.”
Catcher In the Rye
by Salinger
It helps to develop irony and sarcasm by decreasing the severity of a situation when an intense response is expected.
Satire
Simile
Symbol
Tragic Irony
Allegory
Anachronism
Antagonist
Aphorism
Consonance
Cosmic Irony
Dead Metaphor
Metaphor
Metonymy
Malapropism
Protagonist
Diction
Dramatic Irony
Epithet
Euphemism
Flashback
Hyperbole
Voice
Allusion
Anthropomorphism
Ambiguity
Aside
Assonance
Connotation
Denotation
Foil
Synecdoche
Mixed Metaphor
Tone
Motif
Speaker
Personification
Paradox
Verbal Irony
Prose
Situational Irony
Rhythm & Rhyme
a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles. A writer in a satire uses fictional characters, which stand for real people, to expose and condemn their corruption.
“that for above seventy Moons past there have been two struggling Parties in this Empire, under the Names of Tramecksan and Slamecksan from the high and low Heels on their shoes, by which they distinguish themselves.”
Gulliver Travels
by Jonathan Swift
The role of satire is to ridicule or criticize those vices in the society, which the writer considers a threat to civilization. the function of satire is not to make others laugh at persons or ideas they make fun of. It intends to warn the public and to change their opinions about the prevailing corruption/conditions in society.

It makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things. Unlike a metaphor, a simile uses the words “like” or “as”
“. . . impressions poured in upon her of those two men, and to follow her thought was like following a voice which speaks too quickly to be taken down by one’s pencil . . .”
To the Lighthouse
by Virginia Woolf
It attracts the attention and appeals directly to the senses of listeners or readers encouraging their imagination to comprehend what is being communicated. In addition, it inspires life-like quality in our daily talks and in the characters of fiction or poetry. Simile allows readers to relate the feelings of a writer or a poet to their personal experiences

Its used to signify ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense.
“Ah Sunflower, weary of time,
Who countest the steps of the sun;
Seeking after that sweet golden clime
Where the traveler’s journey is done;”
Ah Sunflower
by William Blake
-the sunflower is used as a symbol for human beings and “the sun” symbolizes life
freedom to add double levels of meanings to his work

Where the audience is aware that a character's words or actions will bring about a tragic or fatal result, while the character himself is not.
Oedipus: “Why, I’d sooner marry my own mother than . . . “
Oedipus Rex
by Aristotle

Abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of characters, figures and events. It is used to teach a lesson or moral.

Animal Farm
”, written by George Orwell, is an allegory that uses animals on a farm to describe the overthrow of the last of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WW II. The actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the revolution. It also describes how powerful people can change the ideology of a society. One of the cardinal rules on the farm for the animals is:
“All animals are equal but a few are more equal than others.”
Used to add different layers of meanings to their works. Allegory makes their stories and characters multidimensional, so that they stand for something larger in meaning than what they literally stand for.

An anachronism is an error of chronology or timeline in a literary piece. In other words, anything that is out of time and out of place is an anachronism.
“Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter: therefore, ye soft pipes play on” “
Ode to the Grecian Urn
” by John Keats’
Employed in order to produce a special artistic effect in order to attract the attention of the readers

It is common to refer to an antagonist as a villain (the bad guy) against whom a hero (the good guy) fights in order to relieve himself or others.
Bob Ewell is a malicious antagonist of Harper Lee’s “
To Kill a Mocking Bird
”. Being convinced that Mayella may have been guilty of doing the crime; Ewell is bent on making sure that someone else gets the punishment. Ewell keeps on following Atticus, Judge Taylor, and Helen Robinson even after the case is finished and goes to the extent that he almost kills the Finch kids. Heck Tate said defending Boo when he killed Bob Ewell:
“To my way of thinkin’, Mr Finch, taking the one man who’s done you and this town a great favour an’ draggin’ him with his shy ways into the limelight- to me, that’s a sin. It’s a sin and I’m not about to have it on my head. If it was any other man, it’d be different. But not this man, Mr Finch.”
The antagonist alongside a protagonist is vital for the typical formula of a plot. The antagonist opposes the protagonist in his endeavors and thus the conflict ensues. The protagonist struggles against the antagonist who takes the plot to a climax and later the conflict is resolved with the defeat of the antagonist or, as in tragedies, with the downfall of the protagonist
A statement of truth or opinion expressed in a concise and witty manner.
“You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view – until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.”
To Kill A Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
It allows a writer to teach a philosophical or moral truth and allows the reader to relate to the story.

Is repetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or phrase.
"A Quietness distilled
As Twilight long begun,
Or Nature spending with herself
Sequestered Afternoon–"
As Imperceptibly As Grief
by Emily Dickenson
The use of consonance provides the structure of poetry with a rhyming effect. The poet generally makes use of consonance in an attempt to underscore the emotions behind their words that simple words cannot convey.
When situational irony is associated with the notion of fate, or a deity, manipulating events so as to “frustrate and mock” a character in a literary work.

A figure of speech that has lost its force and imaginative effectiveness through frequent use.
"An example of a dead metaphor would be the 'body of an essay.' In this example, 'body' was initially an expression that drew on the metaphorical image of human anatomy applied to the subject matter in question. As a dead metaphor, 'body of an essay' literally means the main part of an essay, and no longer suggests anything new that might be suggested by an anatomical referent. In that sense, 'body of an essay' is no longer a metaphor, but merely a literal statement of fact, or a 'dead metaphor.'"(Michael P. Marks, The Prison as Metaphor. Peter Lang, 2004)

Metaphor is a figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two things or objects that are poles apart from each other but have some characteristics common between them.
“Shall I Compare Thee to a summer’s Day”
Sonnet 18
by William Shakespeare
It appeals directly to the senses of listeners or readers, sharpening their imaginations to comprehend what is being communicated to them. Moreover, it gives a life-like quality to our conversations and to the characters of the fiction or poetry
replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it is closely associated.
“I’m mighty glad
Georgia
waited till after Christmas before it secedes or it would have ruined the Christmas parties.”
Gone With the Wind
by Margaret Mitchell
metonymy is used in developing literary symbolism in other words it gives more profound meanings to otherwise common ideas and objects. By using metonymy, the text exhibits deeper or hidden meanings and draws in the readers’ attention.
Is the use of an incorrect word in place of a similar sounding word that results in a nonsensical and humorous expression.
“I was most
putrified
with astonishment,”
Huckleberry Finn
by Mark Twain
It is often unintentional but writers introduce malapropism in their literary works intentionally to produce comic effects. It ensures the attention of the readers, as it inserts an extra element of interest in a literary piece.
A protagonist is sometimes called a “hero” by the audience or readers.
There are ensemble stories that do not particularly highlight either one of the characters more than the rest. For instance, Addie Bundren’s demise in the novel
As I Lay Dying
by William Faulkner, results in her family traveling a long way to bury her, and they all tell the story from their own perspective, which makes them all equally important to the story. Which leaves us with more than just one protagonist in the same story.
A protagonist is a very important tool used in developing a story. More often than not the protagonist is fair and virtuous and is always found supporting the moral good. Further in the plot the protagonist may undergo some change, which will probably be the climax of the story.
It is a style of speaking or writing determined by the choice of words by a speaker or a writer.
“And the trees all died. They were orange trees. I don’t know why they died, they just died. Something wrong with the soil possibly or maybe the stuff we got from the nursery wasn’t the best. We complained about it. So we’ve got thirty kids there, each kid had his or her own little tree to plant and we’ve got these thirty dead trees. All these kids looking at these little brown sticks, it was depressing.”
The School
by Donald Barthelme
Diction is used to create and convey a typical mood, tone and atmosphere to their readers.
The quality exhibited in words spoken by a character in a play or narrative who, because of their ignorance of present or future circumstances that the audience is aware of, does not realize how the words apply to his/her situation.
“Upon the murderer I invoke this curse – whether he is one man and all unknown,
Or one of many – may he wear out his life in misery to miserable doom!”
Oedipus Rex
by “Sophocles”
It makes a work of literature more intriguing and forces the readers to use their imagination and comprehend the underlying meanings of the texts.
A descriptive literary device that describes a place, a thing or a person in such a way that it helps in making the characteristics of a person, thing or place more prominent than they actually are.
“God! he said quietly. Isn’t the sea what Algy calls it: a great sweet mother? The snot-green sea. The scrotum-tightening sea! I must teach you. You must read them in the original. Thalatta! Thalatta! She is our great sweet mother.….”
Ulysses
by James Joyce
able to describe the characters and settings more vividly in order to give richer meanings to the text. They help in making the description of someone or something broader and hence easier to understand.
Polite, indirect expressions which replace words and phrases considered harsh and impolite or which suggest something unpleasant.
“For the time being,” he explains, “it had been found necessary to make a readjustment of rations.”
Animal Farm
by George Orwell
It helps writers to convey those ideas which have become a social taboo and are too embarrassing to mention directly. Writers skillfully choose appropriate words to refer to and discuss a subject indirectly.
Interruptions that writers do to insert past events in order to provide background or context to the current events of a narrative.
Arthur Miller’s “
Death of a Salesman
” uses flashback to narrate Willy Loman’s memories of the past. At one moment, Willy talks with his dead brother while playing cards with Charley. He relives a past conversation in the present. This demonstrates a character that is physically living in the present but mentally living in the memories and events of the past.
It is to convey to the readers information regarding the character’s background and give them an idea of the characters motives for doing certain things later in the story. Which deepens inner conflict.
It is an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis.
“He cried all night, and dawn found him still there, though his tears had dried and only hard, dry sobs shook his wooden frame. But these were so loud that they could be heard by the faraway hills…"
The Adventures of Pinocchio
by C. Colloid
It makes common human feelings remarkable and intense to such an extent that they do not remain ordinary
A brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance.
"The two knitting women increase his anxiety by gazing at him and all the other sailors with knowing unconcern. Their eerie looks suggest that they know what will happen (the men dying), yet don’t care”
Heart of Darkness
Allusions enables writers or poets to simplify complex ideas and emotions. The readers comprehend the complex ideas by comparing the emotions of the writer or poet to the references given by them.
Where a writer ascribes human traits, ambitions, emotions or entire behavior to animals, non-human beings, natural phenomena or objects.
“My father was a St. Bernard, my mother was a collie, but I am a Presbyterian. This is what my mother told me, I do not know these nice distinctions myself. To me they are only fine large words meaning nothing. My mother had a fondness for such; she liked to say them, and see other dogs look surprised and envious, as wondering how she got so much education…. When I was well grown, at last, I was sold and taken away, and I never saw her again. She was broken-hearted, and so was I, and we cried; but she comforted me as well as she could….”
A Dog's Tale
by Mark Twain
It is used to make a wider appeal to the readers. With the use of objects or animals, the story could become visually appealing and non-threatening to the readers. Hence, it could attract the attention of a wide audience by presenting animated characters in tales and animated movies.
A word, phrase, or statement which contains more than one meaning.
“I ran all the way to the main gate, and then I waited a second till I got my breath. I have no wind, if you want to know the truth. I’m quite a heavy smoker, for one thing—that is, I used to be. They made me cut it out. Another thing, I grew six and a half inches last year. That’s also how I practically got t.b. and came out here for all these goddam checkups and stuff. I’m pretty healthy though.”
The Catcher in the Rye
by J. D. Salinger
Used for the purpose of lending a deeper meaning to a literary work. By introducing ambiguity in their works, writers give liberty to the readers to use their imagination to explore meanings.
Happens when a character's dialogue is spoken but not heard by the other actors on the stage.
"A little more than kin, and less than kind."
Hamlet
by William Shakespeare (Act 1, Scene 2)
They give the audience special information about the other characters onstage or the action of the plot.
Where two or more words close to one another repeat the same vowel sound but start with different consonant sounds.
“P
o
etry is old, ancient, g
oe
s back far. It is among the oldest of living things. S
o
old it is that n
o
man kn
ow
s how and why the first p
o
ems came.” Carl Sandburg
Early Moon
Used to enhance a musical effect in the text by using it for creating internal rhyme, which consequently enhances the pleasure of reading a literary piece. It also helps the writer to develop a particular mood.
It is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitly. Words that carry cultural and emotional associations or meanings.
“She is all states, and all princes, I.”
The Sun Rising
by John Donne
Connotation paves way for creativity by using figures of speech like metaphor, simile, symbolism, personification etc. Which allows writers to add to their works, dimensions which are broader, more vivid and fresher.
Literal or dictionary meanings of a word in contrast to its connotative or associated meanings.
“All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts,”
As You Like It
by William Shakespeare
Denotations are restricted meanings. Writers, deviate from the denotative meanings of words to create fresh ideas and images that add deeper levels of meanings to common and ordinary words.
A character that shows qualities that are in contrast with the qualities of another character with the objective to highlight the traits of the other character.
“Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”, Robert Louis Stevenson explores the theme of doppelganger in which “Hyde” is not only an evil double of the honorable Dr. Jekyll but also qualifies as his foil. “Jekyll” creates “Hyde” by a series of scientific experiments in order to prove his statement:
“Man is not truly one, but truly two.”
He means that the human soul is a mixture of evil and good. In other words, every man’s foil exists in himself. Hyde is the manifestation of the evil that existed in otherwise honorable Dr. Jekyll. Being a respectable Victorian gentleman, Jekyll can never fulfill his evil desires. Therefore, he separates his “evil-self” and gave him a separate identity and thus invents his own foil.
It is important in the development of characters. The comparison of the contrasting traits of the characters helps the readers to not only understand their personalities but also to comprehend the importance of their roles in a work of literature.
Which a part of something represents the whole or it may use a whole to represent a part.
“At midnight I went on deck, and to my mate’s great surprise put the ship round on the other tack. His terrible whiskers flitted round me in silent criticism.”
The Secret Sharer
by Joseph Conrad
The writer gives otherwise common ideas and objects deeper meanings and thus draw readers’ attention. The use of synecdoche also helps the writer to achieve brevity.
A succession of incongruous or ludicrous comparisons. When two or more metaphors are jumbled together, often illogically.
"Mr. Speaker, I smell a rat. I see him floating in the air. But mark me, sir, I will nip him in the bud."
Garner's Modern American Usage
, Bryan A. Garner
Mixed metaphors are a way of exploring an idea
It is an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience. Tone is conveyed through the choice of words or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject.
“I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I,
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference."
The Roads Not Taken By
by Robert Frost
the readers read a literary piece and how they should feel while they are reading it. It stimulates the readers to read a piece of literature as a serious, comical, spectacular or distressing. In addition, tone lends shape and life to a piece of literature because it creates a mood.
It is an object or idea that repeats itself throughout a literary work.
In Mark Twain’s “The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn”, we see several motifs that support the central idea of the narrative. The motif of childhood gives the novel a lighter tone and makes it enjoyable to read despite its grave central idea i.e. slavery and racism. Both Huck and Tom are young and flexible enough to undergo a moral education and thus are more open-minded than adults. Another obvious motif in the narrative is superstitions. Jim appears silly to believe in all sorts of signs and omens but interestingly predicts the coming event.
Motifs contribute in developing the major theme of a literary work and help readers to comprehend the underlying messages that writers intend to communicate to them.
In literary studies, a narrator : one who tells a story.
"Since native speakers of a language cannot have memorized each phrase or sentence of their language, given that the set of phrases and sentences is infinite, their linguistic knowledge cannot be characterized as a list of phrases or sentences. . . . If a list of phrases is insufficient, then how can we characterize the native speaker's linguistic knowledge? We will say that a speaker's linguistic knowledge can be characterized as a grammar consisting of a finite set of rules and principles that form the basis for the speaker's ability to produce and comprehend the unlimited number of phrases and sentences of the language."
(Adrian Akmajian, et al., Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication, 5th ed. MIT Press, 2001)

Is where a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes. The non-human objects are portrayed in such a way that we feel they have the ability to act like human beings.
“I hied me away to the woods—away back into the sun-washed alleys carpeted with fallen gold and glades where the moss is green and vivid yet. The woods are getting ready to sleep—they are not yet asleep but they are disrobing and are having all sorts of little bed-time conferences and whisperings and good-nights.”
The Green Cables
by L. M. Montgomery
It serves the purpose of giving deeper meanings to literary texts. It adds vividness to expressions as we always look at the world from a human perspective. Writers and poets rely on personification to bring inanimate things to life, so that their nature and actions are understood in a better way.
It is used illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas. A paradox is often used to make a reader think over an idea in innovative way.
The earth that’s nature’s mother is her tomb;
What is her burying grave, that is Rainbow in her womb;"
Romeo and Juliet
by William Shakespeare
The chief purpose of a paradox is to give pleasure. In poetry, the use of paradox is not confined to mere wit and pleasure; rather, it becomes an integral part of poetic diction. Poets usually make use of a paradox to create a remarkable thought or image out of words.
The use of vocabulary to describe something in a way that is other than it seems. Often, but not always, verbal irony is used with a sarcastic tone or nature. Verbal irony is often a comment that conveys a different meaning than what it may seem to be.
“Yet Brutus says he was ambitious and Brutus is an honorable man”
Julius Caesar
by Mark Antony
Comparisons and contrasts are used to create a visualization for the listener or reader.
A form of language that has no formal metrical structure. It applies a natural flow of speech, and ordinary grammatical structure rather than rhythmic structure, such as in the case of traditional poetry. Normal every day speech is spoken in prose and most people think and write in prose form.
“Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show.”
David Copperfield
by Charles Dickens
Its loosely defined structure which most writers feel comfortable using when expressing, or conveying their ideas and thoughts. It is the standard style of writing used for most spoken dialogues, fictional as well as topical and factual writing and discoursed.
Where events turn out to be opposite of what you think is going to happen.
In Greek mythology, Cronus learned that he would be overthrown by his children so he devoured any children Rhea, his wife, had. She tricked him with her child Zeus, giving his a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. In the end, Zeus and his siblings overthrew Cronus
Irony makes a work of literature more intriguing and forces the readers to use their imagination and comprehend the underlying meanings of the texts.
Rhythm
: Is a literary device which demonstrates the long and short patterns through stressed and unstressed syllables particularly in verse form.
DOU-ble, / DOU-ble / TOIL and / TROU-ble;
FI-re / BURN, and / CAL-dron / BUB-ble.
Macbeth
by William Shakespeare
is used unconsciously to create identifiable patterns. Moreover, rhythm captivates the audience and readers alike by giving musical effect to a speech or a literary piece.
Rhyme
: a repetition of similar sounding words occurring at the end of lines in poems or songs.
“Just turn me loose let me straddle my old saddle,
Underneath the western skies,
On my cayuse let me wander over yonder,
‘Til I see the mountains rise.”
It gives poetry a typical symmetry that differentiates poetry from prose. It makes recital of poetry a pleasurable experience for the readers as the repetitive patterns renders musicality and rhythm to it
The distinctive style or manner of expression of an author or narrator.
Voice can be expressed when a writer puts him or herself 'into' the words, providing a sense that a real person is speaking and cares about the message.
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