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Informasi dan Keputusan Strategis
Transcript of Informasi dan Keputusan Strategis
Implementing the balanced scorecard Preparing and defining the strategy
Deciding what to measure
Finalizing and implementing the plan
Once finalized, plan needs to be communicated and implemented
Publicizing and using the results
Reviewing and revising the system 1. The Classical Administrator
Most traditional model of the decision maker or strategist
Henry Fayol → founding model, developed a set of common activities and principles of management DECISION-MAKING APPROACHES General management activities divided into 5 sections :
+ Control involves monitoring Classical-administrator approach, consist of:
Concerned with measuring and improving internal competencies in organization.
Characterized by hierarchy :
Top-down planning and control
Formal target setting and performance measurement
Structured program for functional improvement through “scientific” engineering and a formal organization structure 2. The Design Planner
Principle role of a leader is to plan the development of an organization beyond the short term.
Strategy results from a controlled and conscious thought process, achieving long term competitive advantages and success
Design planning approach outline by : Alfred Chandler, Igor Ansoff and later by Kenneth Andrews
Four decision types identified:
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
Emphasis on Resolving Recuring Issues, such as production efficiency
Ansoff classified decision as:
Operating Design planning requires expertise in 2 area:
Anticipating the future environment
Devising Appropriate strategies matching the external opportunities and threats to the organization resources, internal strengths and weakness HENRY MINTZBERG (1970S)
leading management thinker and writer
Decision making had been flawed and was incapable of understanding what actually happen in organization. The Role Player approach views the strategic decision makers job as more than that of all reflective and analyzing planner and controller. 3. The Role Player The decision makers role becomes one of learning supporting and positively enabling rather than directing.
Result may be incremental progress rather than a big bang, but it is no less real or valuable.
1. Cash Management and Cash Flow
Cash is the life-blood of any business and so it is invariably the biggest factor in strategic decisions.
When cash-management issues are not central to strategic decisions, the door to disaster is wide open. FINANCIAL ISSUES 2. Financial Control
- Many of the biggest scandals occur in the financial services industry, but this is simply because that is where people have access to large sums of money. 3. Controlling Costs
- Controlling costs is one way of boosting profits or reducing losses.
- One of the most important factors in controlling costs is attitude.
Cost control issues vary according to the:
a. type of industry
b. type of business
c. maturity of the business
d. culture of the business
e. external environment and economic conditions Understands the power of external environment
Focuses almost exclusively
On the task of achieving competitive advantages Main Task :
Understand and decides where the organization is competing
Align it to the organization objective
Gain advantages! 6. Visionary Transformer By Tom Peters and Robert Waterman
1980 Visions are tools
of an effective strategic decision-maker Where should the organization position itself in market to provide growth, to continue to build shareholder value and to keep ahead of its competitor?
What type of organization should it be?
What are the brand values and aspirations of the organization?
What Guiding principles steer the organization?
etc What to be done after answering these question?
Develop and communicate a powerful, compelling vision of the future
Structure and lead the organization in the most effective and appropriate way
Control the skills necessary to implement and realize the vision Vision must be achievable
Visionary transformer must be capable of ensuring that they are achieved
It depends in Pragmatism!!! 6. The Self Organiser Self organising business need :
to be led and designed
by peopler who can create an organisation where its constituent parts
Its people continually "Self Organized" Need developing learning communities
Innovation and collaboration are crucial! 7. The Turnaround Strategist Focused on turning around the declining performance Autocratic
Ruthless and Swift
More context-specific Need to implement new control system :
Focus on the reasons
Reverse the reasons
Search for the easiest route 4. Long-term Financial Decisions and Shareholders Value
- Shareholder value analysis (SVA) is a concept used for managing long-term financial decision so that the value of the business is increased.
- The concept of shareholder value works from the premise that a business only adds value for its shareholders when equity returns exceed equity costs. - SVA focuses on long-term perspective, possibly involving significant change.
- The principal features of SVA:
a. It doesn't emphasise accounting measures of judging performance
b. It takes into account commercial risk and discounts future cash flows
c. It requires more comprehensive commercial information across a range of factors - This approach providing a narrowly focused snapshot of how an organisation performed in the past and giving little indication of likely future performance.
- Balanced Scorecard offers a measurements and management system that links strategic objectives to comprehensive performance indicators. 5. The Balanced Scorecard Approach - The success of this approach lies in its ability to unify and integrate a set of indicators that measure the performance of the activities and processes at the core of the organisation's operations.
- The three "soft", quantifiable operational measure include the following:
a. Customer perspective
b. Internal perspective
c. Innovation and learning perspective Technology did not invent a new business program, but it has:
-opening up a multitude of ways to add value, increase sales, reduce cost and manage more efficiently The rise and rise of technology Online activity has, in short period,
dramatically the amount of commercial imformation available to businesses,
the ability to gather detailed, and
personalised customer information is helping to drive business growth. The characteristics of internet-
derived information Four characteristic :
Information is digital
Information is costly to produce, but cheap to reproduce
People must sample information to fully appreciate its value and benefit
The usefulness of infomediaries The characteristics of internet-
derived information The normal process :
Unfortunately, few systems are robust enough too cope satisfactorily with dislocating events Management information systems Achieving balance in information provided to help decisio-makers and support the decisions they make is never easy, and sophisticated management information systems and technology have not made it easier or more effective.
Achieving the right balance is something that organizational behaviorists are researching, and it is likely to receive more attention Customers have become more demanding as competitive pressures have increased.
Often decisions need to be placed in the context of an overall business approach and choices have to be made The impact of technology on
decision-making Technology has an immense and diverse impact on business decisions:
Understanding customer needs
Being certain of the forces driving profitability and competitive advantage
Enhancing external perceptions THE MOST EFFECTIVE APPROACH? Depends in the issues faced!
Leader Style and Preferences
It could even be mixed! But those Theories can help you in fulfilling :
The need of effective leadership and decision making at every level of organization
The need to forecast and manage uncertainty
quick, effective and imaginative respond
The need to manage in adversity Proudly Presented by : Dewi Agustina 2009130047
William Prasetyo 2009130121
Mega Nathania 2009130125
Yolanda Wulansari 2009130211 Class B Information and Strategic Decision