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Rwanda Genocide


Vincent Youngbauer

on 15 March 2010

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Transcript of Rwanda Genocide

Rwandan Genocide: 1994
Population rate 1990’s 4.1% (explosion)
Adoption of crops native to “new World” (corn, beans, etc)
Improved hygiene, preventive medicine, vaccinations
Thomas Malthus
Population grows exponentially
Food Production- arithmetically
Rwanda may show example that Malthus’s “worst case scenario” was right.
Jared Diamond “Collapse”
While ethnic hatred cannot be ignored, other factors were also “in play.”
Throughout history, population and environmental problems get solved sooner or later.
Rwanda & Burundi are the two most densely populated countries in Africa.
Genocide in Rwanda produced the 3rd largest body count among world’s genocides since 1950. (Cambodia, Bangladesh)
Population of both countries consisted of 2 major groups:
Hutu (85%) mostly farmers
Tutsi (15%) mostly pastoralists
Under German control (1897) then Belgium (1916): colonial governments governed through Tutsi “middlemen” B/C Tutsi were seen as racially superior. The labels were actually created by the Belgians.
1930’s Belgium required all to carry ID cards w/ ethnic distinction.
Independence came to both countries in 1962.
Hut’s in both countries began struggling to overthrow Tutsi. Many rebellions and killings over the next 10 years. Millions of Rwandans (esp. Tutsi) fled to other countries.
1973: Hutu General Habyarimana staged a coup against Hutu-dominated Gov’t and stopped violence toward Tutsi.
Rwanda prospered for 15 years more or less.
1990: attempted Tutsi invasion from Uganda- used as an excuse to round up and kill Hutu dissidents & Tutsi.
Millions of Rwandans were displaced into settlement camps where young men were easily recruited into militias. (Interhamwe)
These militias were made up of ultra conservative Hutu, who believed Habyarimana was a trader.
1993: Businesses close to Habyarimana import 581,000 machetes for distribution to Hutus.
Hutu Extremists begin training militias.
April 6, 1994, presidential jet w Habyarimana, shot down by 2 missiles while landing in Rwanda’s capital, killing all on board. Not clear who shot it down.
4/7: Hutu extremists kill the moderate prime minister and other moderate Hutu opposition.
Take over gov’t and radio and set out to exterminate Rwanda’s Tutsi population (1 million)
Death toll 8,000
4/8: Interhamwe set up road blocks and go house to house killing Tutsi. Radio Broadcasts urging Hutus to kill replaced by Public Service announcements for Tutsi to go to safe areas– traps.
Killings were savage; chopping off limbs, breasts, throwing children down wells, wide-spread rape.
April 9, 10,11 :
Evidence of massacres reach world press “piles of corpses”
American, French, Italian, and Belgian citizens are evacuated.
Death toll 32, 000
4/14: 10 Belgian soldiers are killed (UN Troops), Belgium withdraws from UNAMIR- United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda.
UN Security Council votes unanimously to withdraw most of UNAMIR troops from 2,500 to 270.
How the UN Works
General Assembly: made up of all member countries (approx 197).
UN Security Council: has real authority. 15 members, 5 permanent members (US, GB, France, Russia, China). Remaining 10 rotate from General Assembly, elected by the Assembly for 2 years.
All permanent members have veto power.
UN Security Council 2015
•United Kingdom
•United States
(permanent members)
UN Security Council 1994
Russian Federation
United Kingdom
Czech Republic
New Zealand
USA and West “nitpick” over the use of the term “Genocide.”
By 4/28: 168,000 Dead
5/2: 200,000
5/13: 296,000
5/19: 500,000
6/22: 616,000
Mid July: 800,000
Outsiders played an important passive role
Rwanda’s Catholic Church failed to protect and in some cases actively assembled Tutsi and turned them in.
UN Peacekeepers ordered to retreat.
French Gov’t sent peacekeepers who sided with Hutu.
US declined to intervene (Somalia)
Tutsi led Rebel Army, Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) declares victory 7/18/1994.
Did carry out reprisal killings 25,000-60,000.
RPF set up a new government, 2,000,000 Hutu fled to Congo and Tanzania.
750,000 former exiles returned.
Refugee Camp, Zaire (DRC) 1994
Angola (2016)
Chad (2015)
Chile (2015)
Jordan (2015)
Lithuania (2015)
Malaysia (2016)
New Zealand (2016)
Nigeria (2015)
Spain (2016)
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (2016)
Full transcript